The use of stem cells and tissue engineering in dentistry is of considerable interest as it provides an innovative approach to the development of material that can be used not only for the production of lost tissues but also for the maintenance of bone tissue regeneration. The purpose of the study was to determine the promising use of tissue bone equivalents based on multipotent mesenchymal fatty tissue cells to heal bone defects. Material and methods. Control groups were formed taking into account the sex and age of animals, in all cases, the boundaries of the biological standard for all tested parameters were clarified. To evaluate the promising use of multipotent mesenchymal cells of adipose tissue, their properties on the model of skull bone defect in rats (Wistar line) were investigated. The operation was performed under general anesthesia in the parietal region of the skull. With the help of a drill we formed holes, with a diameter of 5-6 mm, without damage to the solid cerebellum. Then material was implanted into the formed defect. Determinations of the structural-functional status of bone tissue of experimental animals were performed using the two-photon X-ray densitometer "Prodigy" (GE Medical systems, LUNAR, model 8743, 2005, USA). Statistical computation of numerical values was performed on a computer using standard statistical methods based on which algorithms for calculating the values were input into the table (Linux operating system, MySQL database, Perl programming language) and worked out. Results and discussion. The research results showed that after 30 days of observations, there were osteoplastic properties of the tissue equivalent of bone tissue on the basis of multipotent mesenchymal cells of adipose tissue based on osteogenic differentiation, especially combinations of samples 4 and 6, which provided bone tissue regeneration. It happened on the model defect of the skull bones of laboratory animals. After 2 months of observation, the experimental group animals had the effective regeneration of bone tissue, irrespective of the chosen methods of implantation of multipotent mesenchymal cells of adipose tissue which underwent osteogenic differentiation. It was determined by the decrease of inflammatory reaction and the positive dynamics of values of bone remodeling markers and confirmed by significant improvement of the structural-functional state bone tissue. According to the results of our research, the model defects of bone tissue of the skull of rats demonstrated the suitability of the investigated implants, especially when combined with samples 4 and 6, which ensured the complete closure of the defect for 90 days. Conclusion. The data of the conducted research emphasize and confirmed the important role of multipotent mesenchymal cells of adipose tissue as a perspective biomaterial. This will promote the development of the newest technologies of reconstructive biomedicine, as well as modern ways of reconstructive osteogenesis in cell and tissue engineering.
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