ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
  • 5 of 61
УЖМБС 2019, 4(5): 45–50
Experimental Medicine and Morphology

Changes in the Structural Organization of Components and Vessels of the Spleen in Experimental Obesity

Harapko T. V. 1, Mateshuk-Vatseba L. R. 2

Obesity is a chronic relapsing disease. The main feature is the accumulation of excessive amounts of adipose tissue. It is characterized by a violation of metabolism and prolonged intake of energy in the body more than consumed. The purpose of the research was to establish the changes in structural components and vascular bed of spleen of rats during experimental obesity. Material and methods. We conducted a study on 66 white rats of reproductive age (4.0-5.0 months) weighing 160-220 g. Microanatomy of the structural components of the spleen of white rats under conditions of physiological norm was investigated on 10 intact animals. Experimental animals were divided into 4 groups. Each group had 5 male rats and 5 female rats. High-calorie diet was achieved due to the fact that food was added sodium glutamate at a dose of 0.07g/kg of body weight of the rat, and in water – 20% solution of fructose. Control was provided by 16 white rats, who instead of a high-calorie diet received a standard diet of vivarium. By means of biochemical blood tests, we determined levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein. Results and discussion. After 5-6 weeks of experiment, we observed the expansion of venous sinuses of red pulp, arteries with thickened wall, and full blood counting both in male and female rats. Veins were deformed, expanded, full-blooded. There were numerous macrophages in the cytoplasm of which there were remnants of hemosiderin. After six weeks of the experiment, numerous lymphoid nodes contained a light, elongated form of the germinal center, thickened and swollen trabecules. After seven weeks of the experiment, blood capillaries were swollen, the nuclear part of the endothelial cells occupied part of the lumen, vascular edema. After eight weeks, we observed an immuno-inducing effect with enhanced proliferation of activated lymphocytes and their further differentiation into plasma cells. Arteries were with thickened walls, full-blooded, veins were deformed, expanded and full-blooded. The proportion of reticular connective tissue in the spleen strains was increasing. Conclusions. As a result of a conducted study in male rats and female rats, we found out that the level of total cholesterol, HDL and LDL in the biochemical analysis of blood increased. The number of macrophages, monocytes and plasma cells in the spleen parenchyma also increased, which was a sign of constant immune activity. Arteries were with thickened walls, full-blooded, veins were dilated and full-blooded. The sinuses of the red pulp were enlarged, there was hemosiderin in the lumen of the venous sinuses. Macrophages were filled with drops of hemosiderin.

Keywords: obesity, experiment, spleen, lymphocytes, white pulp, red pulp

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