The article presents a retrospective review of professional foreign and domestic literature devoted to a topical multidisciplinary problem of hypothyroidism. The most commonly considered is the primary (thyrogenic) hypothyroidism, due to lesions of the thyroid gland itself. Material and methods. To present the acute problem of hypothyroidism we studied and analyzed 37 professional literary and scientific sources, 23of which were domestic and 14 were by foreign authors. Results and discussion. At primary hypothyroidism all types of metabolic processes are suppressed, oxygen utilization of tissues, oxidation reactions are inhibited, activity of various enzyme systems decreases, gas exchange and basic exchange. The study showed that an increase in peripheral vascular resistance occurs in the heart, lungs, kidneys, and serous cavities; develops hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, metabolic immunosuppression, functional disorders of the central nervous system. Loss of bone tissue, decrease in mineral density of bone, osteoporosis is negatively reflected on periodontal tissues. Studies of domestic and foreign authors proved that in the initial hypothyroidism all kinds of metabolic processes were suppressed, oxygen utilization by tissues, inhibitory oxidation reactions, decrease of activity of various enzyme systems, gas exchange, basic metabolism, mineral metabolism. In reducing the function of the thyroid gland, we observed suppression of nonspecific protective factors such as bactericidal, complementary and lysosomal activity, which led to an aggravation of chronic infectious processes. Conclusion. As a result of changes in the microelement composition of solid dental tissues, pathological erosion of solid dental tissues, pathological resorption of the roots of permanent teeth develops. In reducing the function of the thyroid gland, suppression of nonspecific protective factors such as bactericidal, complementary and lysosomal activity was observed. The latter leads to an aggravation of chronic infectious processes. These factors lead to early disability in patients with hypothyroidism and require the use of complex pathogenetically directed treatment and rehabilitation schemes.
Full text: PDF (Ukr) 213K