ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
  • 28 of 45
УЖМБС 2023, 8(1): 202–207

Evaluation of Oral Hygiene and Periodontal Indices of 6–14-Year-Old Children with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Sheshukova O. V., Kuz I. O., Bauman S. S., Kazakova K. S., Mosiienko A. S., Polishchuk T. V., Trufanova V. P.

The purpose of the study was to evaluate oral hygiene and periodontal indices in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods. 258 children aged 6-14 years were examined, including 129 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 129 children without concomitant somatic diseases. All patients were divided into four subgroups according to the presence of gingivitis. We determined the oral hygiene index-simplified (according to Green, Vermillion, 1964), the papillary-marginal-alveolar index in Parma modification (1960), the gingival index according to Loe, Sillness (1967). The t-test for paired samples was used to compare values. The difference was considered statistically significant at p<0.05. Results and discussion. The worst level of oral hygiene was in group of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and chronic catarrhal gingivitis because gum bleeding and pain in gums in these children did not allow them to make full efforts and carry out oral hygiene well. Our research showed a statistically significant difference between the patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and control group in accordance with periodontal indices. Children with diabetes mellitus had the highest values of periodontal indices. The inflammatory processes in the tissues of periodontium in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are expanded, so it is very important to recognize them and diagnose them as early as possible. Periodontal indices in patients of the youngest age subgroup, namely, both the group of patients with diabetes mellitus and the group of children without somatic pathologies were the lowest. The totality of data on periodontal indices in children with chronic catarrhal gingivitis and type 1 diabetes mellitus indicated an average degree of severity of gingivitis, namely, the papillary-marginal-alveolar index was 42.77 ± 1.31%, the gingival index was 1.81 ± 0.05 points. Protective mechanisms in young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are changed. Children with this endocrine illness suffer from swelling of the gums and have extreme gum bleeding along with the development of the main endocrinological disease compared to healthy patients of the same age. According to the results we obtained, we believe that screenings of the oral cavity and preventive programs should emphasize the importance of early diagnosis of gingivitis and periodontitis even during the milk and mixed bite period, particularly in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion. Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus had a worse state of oral hygiene than healthy children. Children with diabetes mellitus had gum bleeding both during the period of temporary bite, and during the period of mixed bite

Keywords: gingivitis, children, diabetes mellitus, oral fluid, oral hygiene index

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