ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
  • 12 of 68
УЖМБС 2021, 6(5): 83–88
Experimental Medicine and Morphology

Explosion-Induced Neurotrauma (Pathophysiological and Patomorphological Features)

Kozlova Yu. V., Koldunov V. V., Aleksjejenko O. A., Kozlova K. S., Goncharenko S. O.

The article presents the results of pathophysiological and pathomorphological features which were studied in experimental blust-induced neurotrauma in rats. The relevance of this study is associated with the frequent blust neurotrauma resulting from the use of explosives in military conflicts. At the same time, neurotrauma is more common, which is clinically manifested by cognitive impairment, even with mild and moderate severity. This, in turn, leads to complications and disability for young people. The purpose of the work was to study the consequences of the air-shock wave influence on the functional and morphological states of the central nervous system. Materials and methods. The studies were carried out on 36 white male Wistar rats 5-7 months old, weighing 180-220 g. The rats were divided into two groups: I – experimental group (n=18), the animals of which were anesthetized with halothane, fixed and explosion-induced neurotraum was simulated by generating a baroacoustic wave with an excess pressure of 26.4 ± 3.6 kPa. II group was a control group (n=18). Functional changes were investigated in the Barnes maze. For pathomorphological examination, brain sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The animals were kept in standard conditions and in the standard diet of the vivarium, all studies were conducted in accordance with modern international requirements and norms of humane treatment of animals (Council of Europe Convention dated 18.03.1986 (Strasbourg); Helsinki Declaration 1975, revised and supplemented in 2000, Law of Ukraine dated 21.02.2006 No. 3447-IV), which is evidenced by an extract from the protocols of the meeting of the commission on biomedical ethics. Results and discussion. Analysis of the results of memory studies in the Barnes maze showed a significant (Р <0.05) increase in the latent time of entering the shelter in rats of the experimental group in the acute and early post-traumatic period, which indicates memory impairment. General characteristics of the rats behavior in the experimental group showed an increase in anxiety and disorientation. The increase in research on "fake shelters" and the chaotic movement around the facility was evidenced. Analysis of frontal histological sections of the rat brain in the dynamics of the explosion-induced neurotrauma development showed the presence of characteristic signs in the form of diffuse microhemorrhages in the hippocampus zone in the acute period of injury, diffuse areas of perivascular and pericellular edema in the early post-traumatic period and paretic dilated capillaries in the structure of the cerebral region on 2nd-3rd week of the post-traumatic period. Conclusion. Thus, quantitative (increased latent time) and qualitative (increased anxiety) signs of impaired orientational-spatial memory and the development of specific pathomorphological signs of explosive brain damage in rats of the experimental group were established

Keywords: explosion-induced neurotrauma, pathophysiology, pathomorphology

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