ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
  • 62 of 68
УЖМБС 2021, 6(5): 437–444

Possibilities of Omegametry in the Assessment of the Functional Condition of Female Athletes Specializing in Karate

Filiptsova K. A., Orlyk N. A., Bosenko A. I.

The purpose of the study was to investigate the peculiarities of changes in the general functional condition of the brain of highly qualified female athletes specializing in karate, in terms of omega potential indicators and to assess the adaptive capability of the central nervous system during physical load. Materials and methods. The study involved 14 highly qualified female athletes aged 17-22 years – representatives of the Odessa Regional Karate Federation. Determination of the dynamics of infraslow bioelectrical processes of the brain, namely omegapotential, was carried out according to the method of O. G. Sychov et al. (1980) at rest, after performing a test in one squat, with dosed physical load in a closed cycle (with reverse) and during the recovery period after exercise. Results and discussion. According to the results of anthropometric and physiometric measurements, the height of the studied girls specializing in karate, on average, was 164.43±0.86 cm, and body weight – 56.36±2.23 kg. The thorax circumference at rest was 84.86±1.57 cm, at the inhale – 89.57±1.49 cm, at the exhale – 82.5±1.57 cm. The average value of vital capacity of the lungs was 3457.14±101.93 ml, wrist dynamometry – 23.36±1.02 kg, back dynamometry – 63.57±3.53 kg. The analysis of the results of the study of infraslow brain processes showed that in the initial state the omega potential value ranged from 10 to 59 mV, which indicated the optimal baseline level in most female athletes before exercise. In the state of relative rest, the average omega potential values (21-40 mV) were found in 79% of the surveyed girls, high (41-60 mV) and low (up to 20 mV) – in 14% and 7%, respectively. The results of study of omega potential dynamics when tested in one squat indicate isolated cases of adequate responses and optimal activation of adaptive systems of the body to the functional load. In most female athletes, the violation of chemo-metabolic, neurohumoral and hormonal processes were observed after performing the test of one squat. The peculiarities of omega-potential dynamics, which were noted during the performance of dosed physical load in a closed cycle (with reverse), indicate a gradual decrease in the studied indicators relative to the initial state during the performance of bicycle ergometric load, especially during the period of reverse (heart rate = 150-155 beats / min) and at the end of testing. At the same time, the depth of shifts also increased, which reflects the significant tension on the central nervous system and other body systems of female athletes in response to physical load. After performing exercise at the 2nd and 5th minutes of rest, no recovery of infraslow bioelectrical processes to the initial level was recorded, which indicates the development of overstrain of adaptive mechanisms. Conclusion. Testing of qualified female athletes specializing in karate, using a functional test conducted in one squat, according to the data of average group indicators of omega potential revealed a violation of chemo-metabolic, neurohumoral and hormonal processes. The study of individual data shows that in most of the surveyed there are various violations of these body systems. The dynamics of infraslow bioelectrical processes in the brain of female athletes during testing using bicycle ergometric load in a closed cycle (with reverse) is characterized by a steady decrease in omega potential throughout the test, which reflects the overstrain of regulatory mechanisms and deep mobilization of functional capabilities. The restoration of the level of omega potential to the initial level at the 5th minute of the post-exercise period does not occur

Keywords: physical load, infraslow bioelectrical processes, omega potential, functional capabilities of the central nervous system

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