ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
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УЖМБС 2021, 6(3): 22–36
Medicine. Reviews

Features of Pathogenesis and Course of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Comorbid with it Cardiovascular Pathology in Elderly Patients

Gorb Yu. G., Strona V. I., Tkachenko O. V., Serik S. A., Ryabukha V. V.

The features of the pathogenesis and course of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diseases of the cardiovascular system comorbid with it are considered in patients of elderly and old age – coronary artery disease, arterial hypertension, chronic heart failure. The leading role of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in the development of metabolic, homeostatic disorders, the formation of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, which, together with age-related changes in the body, contribute to the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus and microvascular complications, primarily diabetic cardiomyopathy. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between cognitive impairment, type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic heart failure. The main factors that worsen the course and prognosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus in elderly patients, in particular, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetic polyneuropathy, nephropathy, and other concomitant diseases, have been identified. Lack of compensation for type 2 diabetes due to metabolic disorders leads to the development of diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, diabetic cardiomyopathy along with the progression of atherosclerotic lesions of different localization. The course of type 2 diabetes in these patients is often complicated by geriatric syndrome, which contains a set of cognitive impairment, senile weakness, depression, functional disorders, polymorbidity. Cognitive disorders negatively affect the course of type 2 diabetes and its complications, significantly disrupting the process of teaching patients the methods of self-control, following the advice of a doctor. It is noted that the management of this category of patients should be individual and include adequate correction of hyperglycemia to prevent microvascular complications and hypoglycemic conditions, as well as reduce cardiovascular mortality and maintain quality of life. Rational selection of drugs, taking into account the factors that determine their impact on the body of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and possible adverse drug reactions, will increase the effectiveness and safety of drug therapy in such patients. Optimizing therapeutic approaches for elderly patients with type 2 diabetes requires effective changes in the health care system to provide them with comprehensive medical and social care according to their special needs

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, pathogenesis, course, prognosis in elderly patients

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