In sports morphology there is a high level of attention to the composition of the athlete's body. Despite the significant genetic determination of body composition, there is a possibility of influencing its individual characteristics in the regulation of body weight, which is constantly present in kick types of martial arts. The reason for this is the weight categories regulated by the rules of competition and the athlete's desire to gain competitive advantage through the transition to a favorable weight category, which affects the formation of adaptive changes in athletes in striking martial arts. The study of morphological features of the body structure of elite athletes provides an opportunity to form models of adaptive changes. So this work is dedicated to the study of body structure of highly qualified athletes who specialize in martial arts as specific signs of adaptation in sports. The purpose of the study is to determine the features of the composition of the body of athletes who specialize in martial arts. Material and methods. We examined 71 highly qualified athletes of the national teams of Ukraine in boxing, kickboxing and taekwondo, and cadets of Ivan Chernyakhovsky National Defense University of Ukraine. Studies of body composition were performed in the morning, on an empty stomach, by bioelectric impedancemetry on professional scales-analyzers of body composition "Tanita BC-545" on the following indicators: body weight (kg), fat content (%), mineral (bone) weight (kg), content water (%), visceral fat content (kg). Results and discussion. The results of the study indicated no significant differences in the body composition of athletes who specialize in different types of martial arts. The composition of the body of wrestlers is not related to sports specialization, age of athletes and qualifications of the athlete, but is largely related to the weight category in which the athlete specializes. The variability of the fat content in all groups by weight was in the range of 25.9-29.1%. This proves that a significant fat content, or, conversely, low, may be inherent in athletes regardless of body weight. Therefore, we should pay more attention to individual indicators of body composition, regardless of weight category, when choosing a strategy for manipulating body weight in the pre-competition period of training. The study showed that the known dependence of fat content on the total body weight of athletes had features in relation to the individual body type. Conclusion. Thus, athletes with mesomorphic-ectomorphic and mesomorphic body type, who mainly perform in light and medium weight categories, may have excessive fat content, while athletes with mesomorphic-endomorphic physique may have a fat content. A factor influencing the fat content of athletes who specialize in kick martial arts is the regular use of weight correction, which activates fat metabolism and often leads to high lability in terms of fluctuations in fat mass, which is a specific feature of the formation of adaptive changes in athletes in kick types of martial arts.
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