ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
  • 61 of 67
УЖМБС 2020, 5(4): 443–449
Physical training and Sport. Medical and biological aspects of training athletes

Body Composition of Athletes in Kick Sports

Kropta R. V. 1,2, Sedukin D. V. 2,1, Vdovenko N. V. 1,2, Zhirnov O. V. 2,1

In sports morphology there is a high level of attention to the composition of the athlete's body. Despite the significant genetic determination of body composition, there is a possibility of influencing its individual characteristics in the regulation of body weight, which is constantly present in kick types of martial arts. The reason for this is the weight categories regulated by the rules of competition and the athlete's desire to gain competitive advantage through the transition to a favorable weight category, which affects the formation of adaptive changes in athletes in striking martial arts. The study of morphological features of the body structure of elite athletes provides an opportunity to form models of adaptive changes. So this work is dedicated to the study of body structure of highly qualified athletes who specialize in martial arts as specific signs of adaptation in sports. The purpose of the study is to determine the features of the composition of the body of athletes who specialize in martial arts. Material and methods. We examined 71 highly qualified athletes of the national teams of Ukraine in boxing, kickboxing and taekwondo, and cadets of Ivan Chernyakhovsky National Defense University of Ukraine. Studies of body composition were performed in the morning, on an empty stomach, by bioelectric impedancemetry on professional scales-analyzers of body composition "Tanita BC-545" on the following indicators: body weight (kg), fat content (%), mineral (bone) weight (kg), content water (%), visceral fat content (kg). Results and discussion. The results of the study indicated no significant differences in the body composition of athletes who specialize in different types of martial arts. The composition of the body of wrestlers is not related to sports specialization, age of athletes and qualifications of the athlete, but is largely related to the weight category in which the athlete specializes. The variability of the fat content in all groups by weight was in the range of 25.9-29.1%. This proves that a significant fat content, or, conversely, low, may be inherent in athletes regardless of body weight. Therefore, we should pay more attention to individual indicators of body composition, regardless of weight category, when choosing a strategy for manipulating body weight in the pre-competition period of training. The study showed that the known dependence of fat content on the total body weight of athletes had features in relation to the individual body type. Conclusion. Thus, athletes with mesomorphic-ectomorphic and mesomorphic body type, who mainly perform in light and medium weight categories, may have excessive fat content, while athletes with mesomorphic-endomorphic physique may have a fat content. A factor influencing the fat content of athletes who specialize in kick martial arts is the regular use of weight correction, which activates fat metabolism and often leads to high lability in terms of fluctuations in fat mass, which is a specific feature of the formation of adaptive changes in athletes in kick types of martial arts.

Keywords: body composition, kick sports, somatotype

Full text: PDF (Ukr) 258K

  1. Kenney WL, Wilmore JH, Costill DL. Physiology of sport and exercise. 5th ed. Human Kinetics; 2012. 622 p.
  2. Vdovenko N, Osypenko H, Puhach A, Sharafutdinova S. Napriamy korektsii kompozytsiinoho skladu tila dziudoistiv [The Direction of Body Composition Correction in Judo Athletes]. Ukrainskyi zhurnal medytsyny, biolohii ta sportu. 2020; 2(24): 218-23. [Ukrainian]
  3. Sterkowicz-Przybycień KL, Sterkowicz S, Żarów RT. Somatotype, Body Composition and Proportionality in Polish Top Greco-Roman Wrestlers. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2011; 28(1): 141-54.
  4. Franchini E, Del Vecchio F, Matsushigue KA, Artioli GG. Physiological profiles of elite judo athletes. Sport medicine. 2011; 41(2): 147-66.
  5. Raković A, Savanović V, Stanković D, Pavlović R, Simeonov A, Petković E. Analysis of the elite athletes' somstotypes. Acta Kinesiologica. 2015; 9(Suppl. 1): 47‐53.
  6. Giampietro M, Pujia A, Bertini I. Anthropometric features and body composition of young athletes practicing karate at a high and medium competitive level. Acta diabetologica. 2003; 40: 145-8.
  7. Chan K, Pieter W, Moloney K. Kinanthropometric profiles of recreational taekwondo athletes. Biology of Sport. 2003; 20(3): 175-9.
  8. Vovkanych L, Kutseryb T, Hrynkiv M, Muzyka F. Analiz somatotypu sportsmeniv-odnobortsiv [Somatotype analysis of wrestlers]. Moloda sportyvna nauka Ukrainy. 2015; 3: 99-103. [Ukrainian]
  9. Hruzevych I, Kropta R, Karvatko M. Zmist fizychnoi pidhotovky osobovoho skladu viiskovosluzhbovtsiv v polovykh umovakh nesennia sluzhby [The content of physical training of military personnel in the field of service]. Tezy dopovidei «III mizhnarodnoi naukovo-praktychnoi konferentsii «Suchasni tendentsii ta perspektyvy rozvytku fizychnoi pidhotreky i sportu u ZSU, pravookhoronnykh orhanakh, riatuvalnykh ta inshykh spetsialnykh sluzhb na shliakhu do Yevroatlantychnoi intehratsii Ukrainy». 2019: 81-3. [Ukrainian]
  10. Kutseryb TM, Muzyka FV, Vovkanych LS, Hrynkiv MYa, Maievska SM. Osoblyvosti proportsii tila ta somatotypu predstavnykiv karate versii WKF [Features of body proportions and somatotype of representatives of the karate version of WKF]. Visnyk Chernihivskoho nat. ped univ. Seriia: Ped nauky. Fiz vykh i sport. 2014; 118: 175-9. [Ukrainian]
  11. Tron R, Hruzevycn I, Salnykova S, Kormiltsev V, Sarafynyuk P, Kyrychenko Y, et al. Psychophysiological conditions and competition in highly qualified combat sambo wrestlers. Journal of Physical Education and Sport. 2018; 18(2): 600-5.
  12. Lewandowska J, Buśko K, Pastuszak A, Boguszewska K. Somatotype Variables Related to Muscle Torque and Power in Judoists. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2011; 30(1): 21-8.