ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
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УЖМБС 2019, 4(1): 21–28
Medicine. Reviews

Morphological Features of Healthy and Pathological Uterus

Ivankiv Y. T., Mateshuk-Vatseba L. R.

The article deals with the issues of morphological features of healthy and pathological uterus. The solution of basic problems, namely the reduction of somatic, mental and gynecological morbidity is the key to improving the state of reproductive health of the population. Experimental simulation is the most appropriate method to study the effects of both exogenous and endogenous factors on the reproductive system, namely on the target organ – the uterus. Despite certain macro- and microscopic differences in structural organization, the uterus of a white laboratory rat is significantly similar to the human one and is appropriate for carrying out research work. The purpose of the study was to analyze modern professional literature on the morphology of the uterus under the conditions of physiological norm and its structural features in various pathological processes. Material and methods. The main method of examination at the pre-clinical diagnostic stage for the determination of indications for histological examination is ultrasound diagnostic with Doppler ultrasonography and doplerometric examinations. At further stages of diagnostics separate diagnostic excision of the cervical canal and uterine cavity, and hysteroscopy are applied. Results and discussion. Theoretical sources describe changes that occur in the layers of uterus (most often in endometrium, which occupies about 2/3 of the thickness of the entire uterine wall) with various pathologies, in particular with endometrial hyperplasia, chronic endometritis, natural and artificial menopause; exogenous and iatrogenic influences, namely: hormonal therapy (combined oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy), the use of agonists and antagonists of progesterone receptors, misoprostol, valproic acid, and nicotine. A separate niche of research is dedicated to narcotic analgesics, which lead to significant changes in the structural organization of the layers of uterus. Poor living standards, difficult socio-economic situation, deterioration of food quality, non-compliance with the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations and Recommendations, the spread of bad habits, increase in total morbidity negatively affect the general state of reproductive and sexual health. This is still an incomplete list of negative factors. The increase in the number of chronic diseases of girls and women is the cause of further complications during pregnancy and childbirth. Chronic pathologies adversely affect the ability of healthy childbirth, the condition of newborns; increase the likeliness of disabilities and diseases in children. To solve these problems, it is necessary to involve specialists from different fields at all levels of government, as well as in-depth study of the problem, both from a social and a medical point of view. Conclusion. Therefore, the study of the influence of narcotic drugs of the group of opioids on the structural organization of uterus will allow revising and improving the tactics of treatment for obstetric and gynecological diseases in women.

Keywords: uterine structural organization, narcotic analgesics, opioids, reproductive health

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