This article addresses the problem of direct denture treatment of dentition defects with partially removable dentures with an acetal base. Partial defects of the dentition lead to a decrease in pairs of opposing teeth, mechanical underloading and overloading of teeth, their traumatic damage during the primary and secondary occlusions, acute and chronic inflammatory phenomena of periodontal tissues. Replacement of defects in dentition with removable denture structures supported by the mucous membrane and alveolar processes of the jaws, which are not phylogenetically adapted to chewing load, require monitoring of the effectiveness of the ongoing prosthetics carried out both during the adaptation stages of rehabilitation period and the prevention of complications during the entire period of using orthopaedic constructions. The discrepancy between the prosthetic base and the prosthetic bed, which occurs as a result of the processes of resorption and restoration of bone tissue after tooth extraction during the adaptation stages of orthopaedic treatment leads to impaired fixation and stabilization of removable structures of denture, overloading of periodontal tissues of the supporting teeth and loss of the latter, causes over time acute and chronic damage to the mucous membrane and mechanical breakdown of the denture. The purpose of our study was to increase the effectiveness of direct orthopaedic treatment of defects in the dentition by accelerating the adaptation to orthopaedic structures using preventive measures, consisting in the clinical relocation of removable partial dentures with cold-cured material based on polymethacrylate. Material and methods. We conducted an electromyographic (EMG) examination of 38 people aged from 45 to 60 who underwent direct orthopaedic treatment of dentition defects with partial removable dentures 1 and 3 months after the manufacture of orthopaedic structures. Electromyographic studies were carried out with the help of a computer neuroelechemographer M-Test produced by the “DH-system” association (Kharkiv) using a computer program developed jointly with the staff of the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry of Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education. The bioelectric activity of masticatory muscles during electromyographic studies was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Statistical processing was carried out in the program “Statistics 8.0” The reliability of the results was evaluated by the Student’s-T criterion. Results and discussion. The conducted EMG studies showed that after the removal of the teeth, patients experienced pronounced functional changes in the activity of masticatory muscles. After 30 days from the beginning of the use of dentures, we observed significantly better data of all the parameters studied in both groups compared with the ones before orthopaedic treatment. Significant differences between the study groups were obtained after relocating the denture in the 2nd study group three months after the implantation of dentures in the oral cavity, whereas in patients who did not undergo relocation of the denture, after 90 days the functional activity of the dentofacial system was not sufficiently restored and the activity of the masticatory muscle was much worse than the previous study group. Conclusion. The proposed methodology for increasing the efficiency of adaptation to removable dentures has shown its high clinical efficacy and is not in doubt. But it should be noted that in any case, when using removable denture structures, especially if they are manufactured immediately after the removal of teeth, the functional parameters of the dentofacial system are not completely restored and do not correspond to the indicators of persons with intact dentitions, which testifies to the necessity of timely medical and preventive measures, aimed to preservation of the integrity of the dentition, natural teeth and periodontium.
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