ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
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УЖМБС 2018, 3(5): 261–265
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The Role of some Macro- and Microelements in Reducing the Risk of Formation of Eco-conditioned Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System

Biletska Е. N., Bezub O. V.

Diseases of the musculoskeletal system, especially in middle-aged and elderly people, are really problematic nowadays. Data from the analysis of hygienic research in this direction and the results of our own scientific research evidenced a complex effect of anthropogenic load of lead and a deficiency of calcium intake with food on human bone tissue. Chemical aggression of technogenic pollution of the environment, according to the experts, is the leading risk factor for population health. A systematic entry of contaminants in the related life-supporting environments – air, water, plant and animal food products by direct and indirect migration chains creates both integrated and combined effect on the body. Bone tissue has the highest cumulative properties in the human body compared with many xenobiotics, in particular to heavy metals, among which lead is the leader in relationship to the bone tissue. This heavy metal even in low doses is able to accumulate bone tissue, displacing calcium. The increase in the chemical pollution of the environment by lead on the background of a recorded calcium deficiency in foodstuffs will contribute to an increase in the incidence of the musculoskeletal system, especially in older and middle-aged people. As a result of researches it was established that low dosed effect of lead during subacute experience caused a significant decrease of calcium content in the bone tissue in comparison with those of control group of animals. This fact reduces its density and becomes a risk factor for the development of osteopenic and osteoporotic state of the organism. Combined effect of lead and organic and inorganic forms of zinc zeliably increased calcium content by 16.43% and 22.04% respectively, as compared with lead group, suggesting protective properties of zinc in lead intoxication due to the effect of bioantagonism. In the isolated introduction of organic and inorganic forms of zinc, calcium content in the bone tissue increased by 1.4 and 2.04 times respectively, as compared with the control group. The obtained results confirmed osteoprotective action of zinc, particularly of organic forms in lead intoxication and give reason to believe that in the system "lead – zinc" effect of biological antagonism was formed. Hygienic studies proved that hypocalcemia, in conditions of chronic low-dose load of lead, could contribute to the development of osteopathy. Combined lead and zinc exposure to bone tissue in organic and inorganic form contributed to the preservation and significant increase in the amount of calcium. At the same time, a statistical analysis of the total consumption of food products, which are the main source of zinc and calcium, by children and adults in Ukraine, reveals a significant decrease in the use of these products. The tendency to reduce calcium intake with food products, formed by objective and subjective assumptions on the background of increasing environmental pressure on the human body, will further promote the growth of the incidence of musculoskeletal system. Now hygienists and clinicians are faced with the task of developing and improving effective practical recommendations for the prevention of this pathology. The development, improvement and implementation of modern methods of prevention of osteopathy should be based on a complex of detailed medical and ecological research of the risk territory and actual nutrition of the population, taking into account the level of its micro- and macroelement imbalance. In our opinion, the formation of a strategy for the prevention of osteopathy requiresfurther in-depth study of the characteristics of bone metabolism under the influence of osteotropic environmental contaminants with simultaneous exposure to other risk factors.

Keywords: lead, bone tissue, calcium deficiency, zinc deficiency, osteopathy

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