Potentially harmful effects of certain chemical factors determination, in particular heavy metal salts, have become especially relevant today as a result of the infertility rate and pathologies of the mother-placenta-fetus system increase, especially in technogenically contaminated territories. In this regard it is important to find and detect micronutrients that could reduce or neutralize the harmful effects of lead compounds. The purpose of the study was to determine the morphogenetic patterns of plumbum acetate isolated and with argentum citrate effects formation, based on results obtained from nanotechnologies usage for rats placenta development. Materials and methods. Wistar line sexually mature female rats were used in an experimental study. These laboratory animals were chosen as the subject of research due to the low level of spontaneous developmental defects in comparison with mice and rabbits. Experimental animals were kept in compliance with the sanitary-hygienic norms of vivarium SE «Dnipropetrovsk medical academy of Health Ministry of Ukraine». All experiments were carried out in accordance with Ukrainian legislation, the European Convention on the protection of vertebrate animals used in experimental studies. During the experiment, 48 females were examined, from which 426 fetuses and placentas were obtained. Animals were divided into 3 groups: 1 group – animals that were injected with a solution of plumbum acetate in a dose of 0.05 mg / kg; 2 group – animals that were injected with a solution of plumbum acetate in a dose of 0.05 mg / kg and a solution of argentum citrate in a dose of 2 μg / kg; 3 group – control. Solutions of metals and citrates of metals were injected to females through the probe once a day, at the same time, from the first day of pregnancy and throughout the pregnancy. Half of the experimental animals from each group were withdrawn from the experiment on the 16th day of pregnancy, the other half – on the 20th day of pregnancy by overdose of etheric anesthesia. An analysis of the morphometric indices of the rats placenta showed that in the group of lead acetate usage there was a decrease in the mass of the placenta by 9,3 % (p < 0,001) on the 16th day of pregnancy and by 3,4 % (p<0,05) on the 20th day compared with the control group. The placenta diameter decreased slightly with no statistically significant difference between the 16th and 20th days of embryogenesis compared with the control group. In the combined injection group, the lead acetate with argentum citrate was characterized by a tendency to decrease the placental mass in both gestational periods compared with control without a significant difference, but exceeded the indicators of the group of isolated administration at the 16th day of pregnancy by 8,8% (p<0,05), indicating the presence of compensatory reactions directed on strengthening blood supply to the placenta under conditions of hypoxia, caused by the introduction of plumbum acetate. An analysis of the histological study results the rat placenta showed that as a result of the introduction of low doses of plumbum acetate there was a deterioration of utero-placental circulation, which was manifested in relative volume of maternal lacunae and fetal vessels reducing. Conclusions. Consequently, the injection of argentum citrates against the background of lead effect contributes to the formation of a number of adaptations in the placenta, which enable to provide the developing fetus by necessary substances and contribute to normal placenta functioning, namely: growth of placenta’s labyrinth, normalization of the index relative volume of giant cells, increased blood plate filling and increased glycogen content in "glycogen" cells.
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