ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
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УЖМБС 2017, 2(3): 120–127
Clinical Medicine

Organs as a Target of Arterial Hypertension from the Perspective of Cerebral Lesions

Puzik S. G.

Cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of death all over the world. One of the most common pathologies of cardiovascular disease is arterial hypertension. The necessity to control arterial hypertension is caused by the fact that this is the most significant risk factor for cerebral disorders, cardiovascular and kidney damage, loss of vision, development of cardiovascular disease and mortality. It is important that arterial hypertension can be controlled. Moreover, modern European guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of arterial hypertension provide the main measures to prevent the complications of this pathology. Recent European recommendations for arterial hypertension in 2013 are important and one of the most required documents for the current doctors. These recommendations make possible the solution of the most acute problems of modern medicine, namely, the detection of asymptomatic lesion of target organs of arterial hypertension. The purpose of this article is to examine cerebral disorders, caused by arterial hypertension nowadays. Attention is paid to the issue of how this problem is covered in modern recommendations, and which diagnostic methods and therapeutic measures should be taken to prevent the development of brain lesions on the early stages. During the study the previous patients’ case reports concerning arterial hypertension complicated by cerebral disorders were examined. Due to the development of brain lesions on the background of arterial hypertension patients were directed to a specialized neurological department of city hospital. Acute cerebral abnormalities were manifested by various types of stroke (ischemic, hemorrhagic, lacunar) and transient ischemic attack. Chronic cerebral abnormalities were mainly represented by dyscirculatory encephalopathy on various health states after transient stroke. It was found out that 21.2% of patients suffered from ischemic stroke, 4.2% of patients had a hemorrhagic stroke, 6.8% of patients had lacunar stroke, and 14.3% of patients had transient ischemic attack. The majority of the patients were those with dyscirculatory encephalopathy accounted for 33.9%. Patients with stroke in their case reports (ischemic, hemorrhagic, lacunar) accounted for 19.5%. In order to detect the nature and frequency of cerebral disorders, the patients’ cases were distributed depending on the degree of arterial hypertension. The first group accounted for 25.5% of patients with arterial hypertension type I. Transient ischemic attack was carried out in 18.2% of patients, ischemic stroke 20.3%, hemorrhagic stroke 2.1%, lacunar stroke 3.7%, dyscirculatory encephalopathy detected in 40.6%, stroke transmitted in 15% of patients. The second group consisted of 26.4% of patients with arterial hypertension type II and cerebral violations were 16.6%; 17,1%; 2.6%; 4.1%; 29.5%; 30.1% (respectively). The third group accounted for 30.6% of patients with arterial hypertension type III with relevant cerebral disorders: 8.5%; 28.6%; 6.3%; 6.7%; 29%; 21%. The fourth group was represented by 17.5% of patients with acute and chronic forms of cerebral disorder on the background of controlled arterial hypertension, which also had relevant cerebral violations: 7.0%; 21.9%; 4.7%; 3.1%; 53.1%; 10.2%. Thus, our research confirms that arterial hypertension nowadays is really acute problem and it is characterized by severe complications of the brain as a target organ of arterial hypertension. In this regard, it is necessary for every patient with arterial hypertension to carry out certain measures following the European recommendations of 2013 for the primary and secondary prevention of cerebral violations on the background of arterial hypertension.

Keywords: arterial hypertension, arterial blood pressure, target organs, disease complications, cerebrum, disease prevention, treatment, recommendations

Full text: PDF (Ukr) 217K

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