ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
  • 57 of 59
УЖМБС 2016, 1(1): 273–279
Physical training and Sport

Individually-Typological Features Functional Tension Skiers Skilled at Passing Climbs of Varying Difficulty

Khmelnytska J.K., Efanova V.V.

As on to day, in skiing, there have been observed steady growth of contest in parallel with complicating of competitions’ conditions that requires seeking of new reserves of elite sportsmen’s efficiency. That is why problem of skiers’ functional fitness and its realization in complex competitions’ conditions has still been insufficiently studied. For example, it was determined that realization of sportsmen’s individual potentials in skiing is conditioned by special conditions of competition functioning and depends on level of sportsmen’s functional fitness. It shall be considered when planning training means and methods in skiing. Rises are the most difficult and important parts in ski racings. They require increased functional, will and tactic fitness of sportsmen. Depending on correlation of rises of different length and their steepness, flat parts and descends, tracks are classified as flat ones, moderately rough, rough and strongly rough. With increasing of sport qualification level, skiers pass to more and more difficult, by relief, tracks. Characterizing parameters of tracks’ difficulty, most of authors quite correctly relate to them steepness and length of rises, sum of height difference, difficulty and harmony. Purpose: studying of main functional changes in organism of qualified female skiers when passing rises of different difficulty. Materials: 12 female skiers of combined team of Ukraine of 21-34 years’ age were tested. Pedagogic observation included: speed metering (system of GPS- navigation), pulse metering (telemetric register of heart beats rate Polar RS800). In process of ski track passing we registered content of exhaled air (radio-telemetric gas-analytic complex MetaMax 3B, Cortex). Sportswomen fulfilled control passing of competition 6 km distance (2 circles, 3 km each) in classic style on ski rollers. Ski track was determined by coach. In the course of track’s passing we registered indicators of speed and track profile with discreteness 1 sec. Assessment of special workability and realization of functional potentials was determined by characteristics of external breathing at the end of each rise. Results: it was found that the highest correlation belonged to the following indicators: frequency of breathing (r = 0.38); oxygen consumption (r = 0.29); ventilation equivalent by О 2(r = 0.68). We detected high interconnection between length of distance and ventilation equivalent by СО 2 (r=0.61). It was determined that factors of organism’s anaerobic efficiency change according to relief of track. They increase on rises and reduce on descends. With it increase on long rises is much higher than on middle size rises. Conclusions: effectiveness of different difficulty rises’ overcoming depends on potentials of anaerobic mechanisms and their realization that, to certain extent, influence on sport efficiency.

Keywords: functional preparedness, modeling, terrain ski runs, skilled skiers

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