ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
  • 45 of 59
УЖМБС 2016, 1(1): 217–220
Physical training and Sport

The Psychological-Acmeological Directions of Formation of the Psychological Readiness of Sportsmen in the Contemporary Olympic Sport

Vysochina N.L.

The modern directions existing now in the field of sporting psychology, which consider the formation of the psychological readiness of sportsmen in the Olympic sport, underlie the strategy of a psychological training and factors affecting its organization. They include the high volume of training loads, permanently growing level of competition accompanying by the significant emotional stress of a sportsman and a high level of responsibility, and element of luck, which is related to the high density of results on large-scale international sports, where the thousandth shares of a point or one second separate the winner. In this case, the enhancement of the influence of psychological factors indirectly reflecting a high level of psychic stress is observed. As a result, there appear new conditions, methods, and principles of training of sportsmen in the intense interaction with modern requirements and the level of development of the Olympic sport. This is especially noticeable in the high achievement sport that is an embodiment of the acme (akμή is a top or the highest degree of something in Greek) of the individual physical and psychic developments of a sportsman. The study of the scientific literature on the problem under consideration and the own experience of the practical work with highly skilled sportsmen allow us to formulate the conditions of optimization of a psychological training of sportsmen in the Olympic sport. The enhancement of the efficiency of a competitive activity of sportsmen on the basis of the formation of the state of psychological readiness in them is related to the presence of definite personal acmeological determinants such as the suppression of the instinct of self-preservation, generation of a sporting aggression, enhancement of athlete’s self-evaluation to the maximal high level, ability to morally repress a competitor, etc. The decision of the above-presented acmeological problems of the psychological training of sportsmen in the Olympic sport and the practical introduction of the obtained results will allow one to improve the state of psychological readiness of sportsmen and their effectiveness. The work is aimed at the determination of basic directions of the formation of the psychological readiness of sportsmen in the Olympic sport on the basis of the acmeological approach. At present, the question of the volitional control over the instinct of self-preservation by a sportsman remains completely unexplored. However, its urgency increases permanently, which is related to the increasing loads and the levels of records in the Olympic sport. The psychological state of a sportsman, who is at the stage of the highest sporting achievements or the stage of the preservation of a sporting skill, is determined by the highest level of psychic mobilization, self-sacrifice, sturdiness, and vision of the future success. Many highly skilled sportsmen possess the feeling of aggression, superiority over competitors, aspiration to suppress them, and absence of the feeling of compassion in the sporting struggle. These qualities can induce the serious problems in the relations with colleagues and in the customary life, which should be taken into account in the process of education and training of sportsmen. To develop the sporting aggression as a component of the state of optimum battle readiness and the prestarting adjustment to the attainment of a success, it is necessary to choose the appropriate irritants corresponding to sportsman’s individual psychotype. Some sportsmen meet the problem of an insufficient level of expression of the sporting aggression, which can be a result of a significant dominance of the processes of inhibition over the processes of excitation in their nervous system (e.g., the phlegmatic persons with low level of neurotism or emotional stability have, as a rule, a low level of aggression), education, suppression of negative behavioral reactions as undesirable ones, etc. It is noticed that the higher the skill of a sportsman and the higher his/her results attained in the carrier, the more surely and freely he/she behaves himself/herself. For a sportsman, the high self-evaluation ensures the stable belief in the attainment of a success, awareness of his/her moral force, and volitional qualities in a combination with developed functional potentialities of organism, which creates the motivation for the victory over a competitor.

Keywords: acmeology, psychological readiness, Olympic sport

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