ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
  • 66 of 68
УЖМБС 2021, 6(5): 465–472
Physical training and Sport. Theoretical and methodical aspects of physical education and sport

Influence of Frequency and Time Implications on Efficacy of Primary School Active Break Programs

Zerf Mohammed, Abdelkader Guebli, Mohamed Hadjar Kherfane

Classroom-based physical activity breaks are suggested to positively impact children's attention during their school day. Frequency and time implications are important as decisive factors in structuring primary school active break programs. The purpose of the study was to research the influence of frequency and time implications on efficacy of primary school active break programs. Materials and methods. This academic survey was admitted as the first Algerian pilot research among primary schools. Its appointment aims are to test the effect of frequency and time implications as decisive factors in structuring primary school active break programs. 4 teachers and 5-grade class levels took part in the study. A total of 180 children (100 girls and 80 boys), 45 in each class were involved in the study. The average age of the participants was 10.4±0.61 years old. All participants provided their written consent to attend the study. The ethics committee of Physical Education Institute, University of Abdel Hamid Ibn Badis Mostaganem had also given its approval. All children were divided in four groups. Group 1 (20 boys and 25 girls) had 2 minutes of exercise every 20 minutes of siting. Group 2 (19 boys and 26 girls) had 6 minutes of exercise for every 1-hour of sitting. Group 3 (19 boys and 26 girls) had 9-minute traditional Active Breaks Classroom-Based Physical Activity program integrated within regular day school break periods. Group 4 was a control one with no Active Breaks Classroom-Based Physical Activity program. All teachers, who voluntarily accepted to be engaged in this experience, were asked to apply the video-based physical activity appropriate for their students according to the model and content (time-frequency) and they encouraged their students to replicate their daily base-physical-activity as proposed. Push, pull, squat, standing chair single-leg balance, flexibility, self-myofascial release and static stretching were used as a complimentary physical activity program. Results and discussion. This study focuses on three frequencies and time implications of proposed Active Break Physical Classroom Routine. The test confirmed the benefits of active breaks program in groups. The higher scores than in the control group were recorded in the post-tests. This study explains it by the complementary time practised by experimental groups according to Active Breaks Classroom-Based Physical Activity program. Clear significant inverse correlations were established between the active-standing time involved and classroom inactive time chair sitting. Conclusion. The results of the study confirmed that it is more useful to use the short break program no longer than 5 minutes, frequently repeated with 2 minutes, after every 20 minutes of prolonged static setting. It has to be used as the prominent strategy for structuring the feasible and potential efficacy of primary school Active Break Program. This model is able to decrease sedentary time and increase daily energy expenditure

Keywords: primary schools, children, physical activity, exercise time and frequency, active break program

Full text: PDF (Ua) 294K

  1. Watson A, Timperio A, Brown H, Hesketh KD. Process evaluation of a classroom active break (ACTI-BREAK) program for improving academic-related and physical activity outcomes for students in years 3 and 4. BMC Public Health. 2019 May 24;19(1):633.
  2. Stapp AC, Prior LF. The Impact of Physically Active Brain Breaks on College Students' Activity Levels and Perceptions. J Physical Activity Res. 2018; 3(1): 60-67.
  3. Liu F, Wang W, Ma J, Sa R, Zhuang G. Different associations of sufficient and vigorous physical activity with BMI in Northwest China. Sci Rep. 2018 Sep 3; 8(1): 13120.
  4. Heneghan RN, Baker G, Thomas K, Falla D, Rushton A. What is the effect of prolonged sitting and physical activity on thoracic spine mobility? An observational study of young adults in a UK university setting. BMJ Open. 2018 May 5; 8(5): e019371.
  5. Watson A, Timperio A, Brown H, Best K, Hesketh KD. Effect of classroom-based physical activity interventions on academic and physical activity outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017 Aug 25; 14(1): 114.
  6. Glapa A, Grzesiak J, Laudanska-Krzeminska I, Chin MK, Edginton CR, Mok MMC, et al. The Impact of Brain Breaks Classroom-Based Physical Activities on Attitudes toward Physical Activity in Polish School Children in Third to Fifth Grade. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Feb 21; 15(2): 368.
  7. Kohl HW III., Murray TD, Salvo D. Foundations of physical activity and public health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2020.
  8. Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research. FitnessGram administration manual: the journey to MyHealthyZone. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2017.
  9. National Academy of Sports Medicine. NASM essentials of personal fitness training. Philadelphia USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008.
  10. Cooper KH, Greenberg JD, Castelli DM, Barton M, Martin SB, Morrow JR Jr. Implementing Policies to Enhance Physical Education and Physical Activity in Schools. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2016 Jun;87(2):133-40.
  11. Graham DJ, Hipp JA. Emerging Technologies to Promote and Evaluate Physical Activity: cutting-edge research and future directions. Front Public Health. 2014 Jun 27; 2: 66.
  12. Hills AP, Dengel DR, Lubans DR. Supporting public health priorities: Recommendations for physical education and physical activity promotion in schools. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Jan-Feb; 57(4): 368-74.
  13. Masanovic B, Milosevic Z, Bjelica D. Comparative study of anthropometric measurement and body composition between soccer players from different competitive levels, elite and sub-elite. Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports. 2019; 23(6): 282-7.
  14. Chin MK, Edginton CR, Tang MS. School physical education and health: A model of best practice, integrating local context with global trends. Glob J Health Phys Educ Pedagog. 2012; 1: 251-282.
  15. Aparicio VA, Soriano-Maldonado A, Buitrago F, Félix-Redondo FJ, Fernández-Bergés D. The Role of Sex and Domestic Physical Activity on the Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Obesity. The HERMEX Study. Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed). 2016 Oct; 69(10): 983-986.
  16. Cassidy JT, Petty RE, Laxer R, Lindsley C. Textbook of pediatric rheumatology. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2011.
  17. Zerf M. Breaks in primary schools and their influence on maintaining and promoting physical fitness and wellness at the level of middle schools. Timisoara Physical Education & Rehabilitation Journal. 2018; 11(21): 7-12.
  18. Krause JM, Benavidez EA. Potential influences of exergaming on self-efficacy for physical activity and sport. J Phys Educ Recreat Dance. 2014; 85: 15-20.
  19. Türk Y, Theel W, Kasteleyn MJ, Franssen FME, Hiemstra PS, Rudolphus A, et al. High-intensity training in obesity: a meta-analysis. Obes Sci Pract. 2017; 3(3): 258-271.
  20. Zerf M. Dance-based body-movement as kinesthetic therapy to reduce the impact of Prolonged Periods Classroom Settings Algerian Primary School. World News of Natural Sciences. 2019; 23: 56-68.
  21. Sousa-Sá E, McNeill J, Pereira JR, Zhang Z, Okely AD, Santos R. Systematic Review on the Associations between Objectively Measured Breaks in Sitting Time and Cardiovascular Health in Youth. Int J Phys Edu Fitness Sports. 2020; 1:26-43.
  22. Le Masurier GC, Corbin CB, Baker K, Byl J. Fitness for life Canada: preparing teens for healthy, active lifestyles. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2017.
  23. Saeidifard F, Medina-Inojosa JR, Supervia M, Olson TP, Somers VK, Erwin PJ, et al. Differences of energy expenditure while sitting versus standing: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018; 25(5): 522-538.
  24. Mantzari E, Galloway C, Wijndaele K, Brage S, Griffin SJ, Marteau TM. Impact of sit-stand desks at work on energy expenditure, sitting time and cardio-metabolic risk factors: Multiphase feasibility study with randomised controlled component. Prev Med Rep. 2018 Nov 26; 13: 64-72.