ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
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УЖМБС 2021, 6(2): 169–180
Forensic Medicine

Ultrasound Diagnostics of the Nature and Duration of Abdominal Trauma

Babkina O. P. 1, Danylchenko S. I. 2

The purpose of the study was to study a complex of changes in ultrasound parameters of injured tissues of the liver, spleen, pancreas in mechanical trauma and their dependence on the nature and duration of injury. Materials and methods. Ultrasound examinations were performed in 60 injured patients (41 males and 19 females) aged 20 to 60 years old in the dynamics as for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th days after injury. Puncture, transverse and oblique scans from all possible accesses were used. The conditions of the liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys were studied. Results and discussion. In the course of the studies, a high number of injuries to the abdominal and retroperitoneal organs was demonstrated; it was proved that isolated liver injuries were observed in 32%, in 68% the liver injury was combined with injuries of other abdominal organs. We observed isolated damage to the pancreas in 10%, in the remaining 90%, the injury to the pancreas was combined with damage to the liver, gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts, spleen, and intestines. Isolated injuries of the spleen were observed in 31% of patients; in other cases, the injury to the spleen was combined with injuries of other organs of the abdominal cavity. We observed isolated kidney damage in almost 15%. In 85% of cases, kidney damage was observed in combination with injuries of other parenchymal organs. It has been demonstrated that in the area of injured tissues of the liver, pancreas, spleen, and kidneys with blunt trauma to the abdomen in persons with no signs of alcohol intoxication, regular ultrasound changes are observed, which are in direct proportion to the time elapsed since the injury was caused. The main ultrasound signs of liver damage were ruptures of the parenchyma with the formation of intra-parenchymal or subcapsular hematomas. In general, for almost all the injured people the following sings were characteristic as an increase in liver size (often due to increased part of damage), heterogeneity of structure, blurred contours and their discontinuity, presence of hypo- and anechoic areas (hematomas) on the background of intact parenchyma. Characteristic ultrasound criteria of pancreatic damage in the first day are the lack of clear contours of the gland, their discontinuity, increase in the size of the gland, the presence of hypoechoic areas of different sizes. At ultrasound examination of the spleen, the main signs of its damage are the heterogeneity of the parenchyma and the presence of anechoic structure and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. In 69% of cases, the main sings were blurred and uneven contours of the spleen, as well as an increase in its size. Characteristic features of renal hematoma are an increase in their size, heterogeneity of structure with increasing echogenicity of the parenchyma, blurred contours and their discontinuity. Conclusion. It has been proven that it is advisable to use in a complex of changes in the parenchymal organs revealed by ultrasound examinations, both in cases of isolated organ trauma, and in cases of combined trauma of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal organs, to determine the time of causing damage, since it makes it possible to increase the objectivity of the results of establishing the duration of the injury

Keywords: ultrasound examinations, diagnostics, blunt trauma, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, duration of damage

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