ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
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УЖМБС 2020, 5(6): 36–43
Medicine. Reviews

Analytical Review of Literature. Prevalence of Acute Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases of Jaw in Children and General Principles of Complex Treatment

Nitzjati N. 1, Tserakhava T. N. 1,2, Pohodenko-Chudakova I. O. 1,2

Odontogenic infectious and inflammatory diseases is the most common reason of patients seeking for dental surgery. Among the acute odontogenic inflammatory processes, for which children are hospitalized in the hospital, the most often are: periostitis of the jaw, abscesses, phlegmons. The purpose of this work was to study the prevalence of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the jaw in 2010-2020 and the General principles of their treatment. Material and methods. The available domestic and foreign specialized literature from 2010 to 2020 is analyzed. The list of analyzed sources includes: periodicals for the specified period, basic manuals, monographs, and articles without a Statute of limitations. The descriptive method is used for the analysis. Results and discussion. Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the maxillofacial region are most often diagnosed in children 2-9 years old. They make more than 50% of the structure of nosological forms that are treated in a hospital. Recently, the proportion of patients with odontogenic jaw periostitis has increased to 40% in polyclinics and hospitals. The reasons of increase of children number with inflammatory diseases of the maxillofacial region are: high prevalence and intensity of dental caries; insufficient level of primary and secondary prevention of the latter; late access to dental care; untimeness and inadequacy of surgical care in the initial treatment of patients. Treatment of periostitis and osteomyelitis of the jaw bones should be comprehensive (including radical surgery with mandatory removal of the "causal" tooth and rational medical and physical therapy). Medical treatment includes antibacterial, detoxifying, hyposensitizing, symptomatic and general tonic agents. Children with acute odontogenic infectious and inflammatory processes are prescribed antibacterial drugs that have a tropism to bone tissue. Antibacterial drugs are prescribed in 60.5% for nitromidazole group of drugs ‒ "Metrogil", 45% − "Cefazolin" and 30.25% − "Cefotaxime" (cephalosporin-type drugs). However, irrational use of antibiotics leads to changes in the species composition and properties of microflora and consequently to decrease in the effectiveness of antibacterial therapy and increase in the frequency of this pathology and its severe complications. Therefore, when choosing antibacterial drugs, it is necessary to take into account the age of the child and the sensitivity of pathogens to antibiotics. Conclusion. Analysis of the literature revealed that the prevalence of acute odontogenic infectious and inflammatory processes of maxillofacial localization tends to increase and the solution to this issue should be in the plane of improving the known and developing new treatment methods including balance of surgical, drug and rehabilitation techniques

Keywords: infectious-inflammatory complication of acute odontogenic infection, the jaw bone, periostitis, osteomyelitis

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