ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
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УЖМБС 2020, 5(5): 28–34
Medicine. Reviews

Periodontal Destruction and Regeneration in Experimental Models: Combined Research Approaches

Kordiyak Olena J.

Chronic periodontitis is a common dental disease, resulting in destruction of gingival tissue, periodontal ligament, cementum, alveolar bone and, consequently- teeth loss in the adult population. Experimental animal models have enabled the study of periodontal disease pathogenesis and are used to test new therapeutic approaches for treating the disease The purpose of this review study was to draw the evidence from animal models, required for future assessment of destructional and regenerative processes in periodontal tissues. Material and methods: a rat experimental periodontitis models of ligature, streptozotocin, and immune complexes induced periodontitis, periodontal defect, altered functional loading, stress exposures and surgically created chronic acid reflux esophagitis models. Histomorphomorphological/-metrical, immunohisto (-cyto)chemical and histopathological analysis, micro-computed tomography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, polarizing light and confocal microscopy, spectrophotometry, radiographic and biomechanical analysis, descriptive histology and computer-assisted image analysis. Results and discussion. Scaling and root planing may not always be effective in preventing periodontal disease progression, and, moreover, with currently available therapies, full regeneration of lost periodontal tissues after periodontitis cannot be achieved. However, in 70.5% of the results of experimental studies reported, irrespective of the defect type and animal model used, beneficial outcome for periodontal regeneration after periodontal ligament stem cell implantation, including new bone, new cementum and new connective tissue formation, was recorded. Therefore, platelet-rich fibrin combined with rat periodontal ligament stem cells provides a useful instrument for periodontal tissue engineering. Conclusion. There is sufficient evidence from preclinical animal studies suggesting that periodontal tissue engineering would provide a valuable tool for periodontal regeneration. Further elaboration of the developed in preclinical studies experimental techniques should justify progress to clinical studies and subsequent medical application

Keywords: periodontal disease, experimental animal models, tissue engineering

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