According to the analysis of modern literary sources on the study of aspects of bone tissue reparative regeneration of, data on its staging were systematized, cellular and molecular mechanisms of reparative regeneration of bone tissue were studied, and bone metabolism indices were analyzed. It is necessary that the regeneration of bone tissue seamlessly lay down the functional activities of osteogenic clits. In the initial stage of reparative osteogenesis, osteoclasts provide resorption in the area of defect of necrotized bone fragments and participate in the remodeling of bone fragments. Osteoblasts form primary bone beams, which are made of collagen fibrils. They synthesize the bone matrix, ensure its mineralization, produce collagen proteins. Osteocytes provide the transmission of mechanical and chemical signals to osteoblasts and through the integument cells to osteoclasts, which initiates bone remodeling processes. An important role in the processes of local regulation of osteogenesis is to establish such signaling paths as the RANK / RANKL / OPG system, fast morphogenetic cells, Wnt signalization. Osteoclast activity and degree of bone resorption depend on the balance between RANKL and OPG. RANKL, which is located on the surface of osteoblasts, binds to the RANK receptor on the membranes of osteoclast precursor cells. This triggers osteoclastogenesis, which enhances bone resorption. Bone morphogenetic proteins stimulate osteoblast differentiation, promote bone and cartilage formation. Wnt proteins are regulators of the processes of bone regeneration and remodeling, differentiation of stem cells. Osteoblastic and osteoclastogenesis are characterized by biochemical markers of bone remodeling. For the evaluation of bone formation, the most informative is the determination of the level of osteocalcin, C and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, and the assessment of the resorption-concentration of C-terminal telopeptide of collagen I type, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in blood plasma and the level of plasma dezinoxin. Using markers of bone remodeling, one can investigate the rate of bone metabolic processes, identify patients at risk for bone loss, conduct an early evaluation of the effectiveness of the prescribed treatment, predict the risk of complications, and diagnose the occurrence of bone metastases at an early date.
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