ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
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УЖМБС 2020, 5(3): 74–81
Medicine. Reviews

Stem Cells from the Maxillofacial Area: Features and Perspectives of Application

Lytovchenko V.

The article presents the topicality, theoretical aspects and features of the use of stem cells from the maxillofacial area in the treatment of dental diseases. The analysis of literature generalizes the advantages of this method: a less traumatic accessible method and no obstacles of ethical and legislative nature in the allocation of material, high concentration and ability of mesenchymal stem cells to self-renewal and differentiation, respectively, the effectiveness and prospect of use in restorative therapy facial area. We also considered the characteristics of fat pad determining the appropriateness of using them as an innovative, valuable, affordable source of fat stem cells for tissue engineering purposes. At the same time, the spread of dental pathologies and diseases causes the need for further study, theoretical substantiation, experimental testing of this method and widespread use of stem cells from the maxillofacial area in solving topical clinical problems, in particular: restoration of damaged dentin, growing teeth using bioengineering technologies. The article describes the characteristics of adipose tissue, which largely determine the feasibility of its use as a source of stem cells; selection features and basic properties of stem cells; case of stem cells from the maxillofacial area (about eight unique populations of «dental» stem cells). As a result of literature analysis, the sequence of surgical technique for removal of fat bodies is presented; modern algorithm for obtaining stem cells from of fat pad; a number of experiments on the use of adipose stem cells (clinical study of the closure of the maxillofacial area defect, the study of using mesenchymal stem cells of adipose tissue in the treatment of periodontitis, the clinical case of the local periodontitis treatment using stem cells from the pulp). The purpose of the study was to analyze the scientific-theoretical and clinical aspects of using stem cells derived from the maxillofacial area as an innovative approach in dentistry. Methods of theoretical analysis of the literature sources presented in scientific publications included in scientometric databases PubMed, Index Copernicus, Ulrich's Periodicals, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, etc. were used; generalization of the knowledge obtained during the training at the Department of Surgical Dentistry and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Bogomolets National Medical University.

Keywords: stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells from maxillofacial area, dentistry, maxillofacial surgery

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