ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
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УЖМБС 2020, 5(2): 147–152
Physical Therapy and Ergotherapy

Biological Effects of Cryotherapy: Justification of the Application in the Training of Sportsmen

Panchenko O., Onishenko V., Serdyuk I.

Excessive physical exertion, an increased volume of competitive activity, the reactivity and resistance disorders in conditions of the increased influence of adverse environmental factors are constantly reducing the adaptive capabilities of the body and increasing the sickness rate of athletes. A complex medical and psychological approach has become necessary to improve the functioning of the body of athletes in conditions of increased requirements for health, level of functional, physical and psychological readiness. In conditions of sporting activity with maximum and transcendental physical exertion, any, even slight deviations of the parameters of homeostasis affect the effectiveness of sports in the most negative way. It can cause reducing athletic performance, retirement, disability of athletes. Nowadays the issue of preventing the exhaustion and restoration of human adaptive capabilities is very relevant. One of the new relevant methods of restoring therapy is cryotherapy. This method is a combination of physical treatments based on the use of the cold factor. The main types of cryotherapy are general and local, despite the similarity of physical effects, give fundamentally different results. General cryotherapy irritates the entire receptor field of the skin and affects the central nervous system. Local cryotherapy causes local effects. The main biological effects of cryotherapy for athletes are painkilling, hardening, anti-inflammatory, decongestant, regenerative, immunomodulating, antidepressant effects. Cryotherapy due to its therapeutic effect leads to a significant increase in muscle strength, increase in physical fitness, mental balance, improves sleep and mood. Application of cryotherapy in sport medicine: rehabilitating and preventing acute and chronic sport injuries, increasing the physical performance and psycho-emotional stability of athletes. Conclusion. The expediency and nessessity of including cryotechnologies in the sports come out of possibility of cryotherapy, due to its biological effects, to solve problems of stabilization and growth of high athletic performance, stimulation of the physical, physiological and emotional-psychological qualities of athletes.

Keywords: cryotherapy, thermoregulation, analgesic effect, sport medicine

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