In humans and animals, the hematopoietic system is a diverse group of cells whose task is to maintain the internal environment of the body. Among all non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the leading place belongs to sodium Diclofenac, which is the first-line drug in the treatment of inflammatory diseases and pain relief, including after surgical interventions. It is often prescribed in short courses, however, in some cases, the disease is treated by it for many years. The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of the drug Diclofenac sodium on myelocytic cells, undifferentiated blasts and the process of mitosis of myeloid cells within a short course for 4 days and to compare the results with the control group. Material and methods. The studies were conducted on white outbred rats in the amount of 48 individuals, the bone marrow of which was removed from the femur after decapitation. Animals of the control group received an oral physiological solution of sodium chloride according to the method and mode of administration of the test substances to animals of the main group. The study of the obtained material was carried out microscopically and using Goryaev camera. Results and discussion. During the experiment, a negative effect of toxic doses of the drug on the bone marrow and morphology of the studied cells was established, primarily a sharp decrease in their number. The morphological structure violation was also observed in the studied group of cells. On the contrary, the use of a subtoxic dose of the drug contributed to an increase in the production of new cells of the studied series of bone marrow, most likely due to activation of the body immune system. The rat bone mass was reduced when using a toxic dose, which was not observed in animals of the control group. In the treatment of diseases, the short courses are optimal for the toxic doses of Diclofenac sodium in order to increase the number of rat granulocyte cells in the rat bone marrow and the body immune system. When using a toxic dose of the drug, there was a decrease in the number of cells of the myelocytic series of the studied bone marrow of rats and its mass in comparison with the control group. Conclusion. Thus, it makes sense to recommend the use of subtoxic doses of Diclofenac sodium in order to increase the level of the immune system and the level of cells of the myelocytic number of the red brain in clinical practice. The prospect of further research is to determine the number and morphology of other red bone marrow cells in rats and inflammation factors under the influence of short-term administration of the drug Diclofenac sodium in rats and the implementation of the results into clinical practice.
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