Visceral bone construction is determined by varieties of its units, regions and bones with a poorly investigated range of variability depending on the age, sex, individual shape of the head. The purpose of our work was to investigate an individual anatomical variability of mandibular alveolar arch in adulthood. Material and methods. The research was conducted on 100 bone samples of certificated integral and fragmented male and female adulthood skulls (I-II periods) from the collections of anatomy department of Kharkiv National Medical University. We conducted the detailed osteometry of the mandible. Morphometry of mandible consists of determining the following parameters: length on both sides (go-pg); height of left and right branches (t-go), where t is the highest point; width (go-go); length (perimeter) of alveolar arch. All calculations were performed by computer program using the digital standard package of the tables and initial data. Results and discussion. According to the obtained data, the height of the mandible in males was 1.3-3.2 cm; in females it was from 1.2 to 3.0 cm. The thickness of the mandible body in adult males was 1.0-1.8 cm and 1.0-1.7 cm in females. The range of mandibular alveolar arch perimeter differences in adulthood ranges from 12.70 to 15.40 cm: in males it was from 12.90 to 15.40 cm, in females it was from 12.70 to 14.90 cm. The width of the left half of the lower alveolar arch varied in males from 3.80 to 6.30 cm, in females it was from 3.70 to 6.00 cm with a tendency to gradually increase from narrow-headed people to broad-headed. Statistically width of the left and right halves of the lower alveolar arch did not meet severe asymmetry, according to the indicated average. However, the individual structure showed that both sexes of brachycephalic type had a slight predominance of left half width. In this regard, it can be argued about mild left-sided asymmetry of the mandible in adulthood people. Taking into account that the crowns of the teeth on the lower jaw tilted inward, and their roots were outside, the dental arch is always narrower and alveolar arc bigger is than basal (apical). Conclusions. Thus, adult males and females have a completed type of the mandibular structure. In our geographical area, the majority of people are of brachy- and mesocephalic types with the prevalence of flatten and broad shapes of visceral skull.
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