During life man is always exposed to environmental factors that are characterized by possible simultaneous or combined effects. There are certain standard combinations of them. Particular attention should be paid to the possible consequences of the combined effects of factors of different nature that are present in the modern human environment, including adverse microclimatic conditions and electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Temperature difference, especially in the direction to positively low (from +2 to +6 °C), may significantly influence the action of other factors. EMR is a potent environmental factor and has a high biological activity that can affect a person in conditions of high or low environmental temperature. The immune system is a unique, natural defense mechanism and one of the first to respond for extreme environmental factors exposure. Of particular relevance is the study of the immunological mechanisms of the body's response to EMR under cold stress conditions. The article presents with experimental study of phagocytic activity of lymphocytes together with detection of the ability to form neutrophil extracellular traps under the influence of EMR, cold factor per se and in combination. We established that on background of a higher level of neutrophils phagocytic activity under the influence of cold factor on the 5th day its lower values were marked under the influence of EMR per se and in combination. On the 15th day the phagocytic activity significantly increased under the action of EMR. Due to the formation of neutrophilic extracellular traps the exhaustion of phagocytic activity took place on the 30th day of EMR influence, and this may be considered a compensatory reaction of the organism. An immune state formed under combined action of cold factor and EMR differs in the control group and the experimental group due to cold factor and EMR effects per se. This difference consists in a decrease of phagocytic and metabolic activities of neutrophils. Decrease in the level of phagocytic activity is offset by the activation of neutrophilic extracellular traps formation that is formed after the death of neutrophils and perform the function of eliminating antigen from the body. Thus, the per se effects of cold factor and EMR have multidirectional mechanisms of action on the body, that leads to leveling of the immune system's reactions to the combined influence of these factors.
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