ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
  • 45 of 50
УЖМБС 2018, 3(7): 267–277
Physical training and Sport. Medical and biological aspects of training athletes

Prospects of Application of Diet Supplements Based on Amaranth in the Practice of Training Athletes

Gunina L. M. 1, Dmitriev A. B. 2, Shustov E. B. 3, Kholodkov A. B. 4, Golovashchenko R. B. 5

Amaranth is a plant known for a long time but forgotten in vain. Its biological value as a source of high-grade protein and various physiologically active substances necessary for ensuring the vital activity of the human body is very high. For the sport of higher achievements, amaranth is an extremely useful plant, since its different parts (stems, leaves, fruit) contain active substances of a protective nature (essential amino acids, carbohydrates, natural antioxidants), tocopherols, squalene and glycosides of flavonoid type, and also essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, a number of vitamins and minerals, etc. Due to these features, amaranth exhibits a sufficiently high hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, membrane-protective activity. It is also able to protect genes of different genesis damaging effects, which is of particular importance for persons under the influence of long-term oxidative stress generated as a result of prolonged and intense exercise. The article is a review presenting data from modern studies obtained using the latest methodological approaches (Western blot analysis, MALDI-TOF analysis, liquid chromatography combined with the use of a photodiode array and fluorescent detectors, etc.), the biological value of amaranth, the effects of its influence on the modulation of the negative effects of regular high-intensity training process on the body of athletes. Material and methods. The ability of amaranth to serve as a donor of nitric oxide, comparable in power to a reference substance such as the amino acid L-arginine, used in the form of numerous foreign food supplements based on it and the domestic drug tivortin aspartate, is of particular importance for higher achievements in sports. The discovery of the enzyme alcalase in the seeds of amaranth, which is capable of releasing antihypertensive peptides during protein hydrolysis, which affect the activity of the angiotensin-converting enzyme, can have a positive effect on preventing myocardial pathology forming by economizing its work in athletes training. Results and discussion. The study also showed that in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness of amaranth oil during course taking (4 weeks) in athletes specializing in running at medium distances of 1500 m and 3000 m, a decrease in the severity of psychophysiological stress was observed from 44.8 ± 2.5 points to 31.7 ± 1.4 points (p <0.001), as well as a decrease in the incidence of acute respiratory viral infections by 18.8 % compared with those in the placebo control group (unrefined vegetable oil). In addition, we found a significant improvement in prooxidant-antioxidant balance in erythrocyte membranes with a decrease in the content of malondialdehyde with a parallel increase in the content of reduced glutathione in comparison with the placebo control group (p < 0.05). A pronounced hepatoprotective activity was also established in the conditions of the study in athletes on a real-time basis by the end of the observation period, which was not observed in the placebo control group. At the same time, in athletes of the main group, after taking amaranth oil, there was a significant increase in the running speed to 5.32 ± 0.12 m×sec-1 against the data in the placebo-control group which was 4.97 ± 0.10 m×sec-1 while decreasing heart rate to 171.90 ± 3.42 beats×min-1 and 184.21 ±3.18 beats×min-1, respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusions. The obtained data indicates an improvement in aerobic performance without an increase in the load on the myocardium of athletes, which makes it possible to recommend the use of domestic extract from amaranth seeds (produced by LLC Alef-Cohen, Kharkov) in the process of training of qualified representatives of cyclic sports.

Keywords: amaranth, sport of higher achievements, middle-distance running, economization of the heart activity, hepatoprotective activity, squalene

Full text: PDF (Rus) 355K

  1. Vavilov NI. Izbrannye trudy; v 5-ti tomakh. Vol 5 «Problema novykh kultur». Moskva-Leningrad: AN SSSR; 1959. p. 537-63. [Russian]
  2. Vrachebnyy kontrol v fizicheskom vospitanii i sporte: Metodicheskie rekomendatsii dlya studentov; sostaviteli: Sokolovskiy VS, Romanova NA, Vladova VS, Bondarev II. Odessa: ONMU; 2001. 93 s. [Russian]
  3. Vysochina GI. Amarant (Amaranthus L.): khimicheskiy sostav i perspektivy ispolzovaniya (obzor). Khimiya rastitelnogo syrya. 2013; 2: 5-14. doi: 10.14258/jcprm.1302005. [Russian]
  4. Gulshina VA, Romanova NP, Lapin AA, Zelenkov VN. Osnovnye rezultaty kompleksnogo issledovaniya amaranta v usloviyakh TsChZ Tambovskoy oblasti. Netraditsionnye prirodnye resursy, innovatsionnye tekhnologii i produkty. 2007; 14: 126-36. [Russian]
  5. Dergausov VI. Amarant – kultura perspektivnaya. Masla i zhiry. 2006; 2: 7. [Russian]
  6. Dmitriev AV, Gunina LM. Osnovy sportivnoy nutritsiologii (monografiya). SPb: Izd-vo OOO «RA Russkiy Yuvelir»; 2018; p. 176-80. [Russian]
  7. Dzyuba VF, Safonova EF, Frolova IV. Biofarmatsevticheskie issledovaniya lekarstvennykh form s maslom amaranta. Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennnogo universiteta. Ceriya Khimiya. Biologiya. Farmatsiya. 2007; 2: 145-50. [Russian]
  8. Eliseeva OP, Kaminskiy DV, Cherkas AP, Ambarova LI, [i soavt.] Osoblivosti vplivu oliyi nasinnya amaranta na stan antioksidantnoyi sistemi pechinki ta krovi mishey za rozvitku v nikh zloyakisnoyi limfomi. Ukr biokhim zhurn. 2006; 78(1): 117-23. [Ukrainian]
  9. Zheleznov AV. Amarant ‒ khleb, zrelishche i lekarstvo. Khimiya i zhizn. 2005; 6: 56-61. [Russian]
  10. Patent № 2140432. (RF). Antioksidant; avtory Gins VK, Kononkov PF, Pivovarov VF, Gins MS, Kononkov FP. Opubl. 27.10.1999. [Russian]
  11. Patent № 2170096 (RF). Immunostimuliruyushchee sredstvo; avtory Chernekhovskaya NE, Chernekhovskiy DV, Chernykh SB, Dankov VS. Opubl. 10.07.2001. [Russian]
  12. Platonov VN. Dvigatelnye kachestva i fizicheskaya podgotovka sportsmenov. Kiev: Olimpiyskaya literatura; 2017. p. 535-63. [Russian]
  13. Tkhi Khue Kao, Tkhi Min Khang Nguen, Tkhan Le Nguen, Spiridovich EV, Alekseeva EI, Khung Nguen Van. Izuchenie biokhimicheskogo sostava zerna amaranta (na osnove syrya Vetnama). Vestnik BGU. 2015; 1(59): 12-8. [Russian]
  14. Akubugwo IE, Obasi NA, Chinyere GC, Ugbogu AE. Nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus L. leaves from Afikpo, Nigeria. Afr J Biotechn. 2007; 6(24): 2833-39.
  15. Andini Rita, Yoshida Shigeki, Ohsawa Ryo. Variation in Protein Content and Amino Acids in the Leaves of Grain, Vegetable and Weedy Types of Amaranths. Agronomy. 2013; 3: 391-403.
  16. Babault N, Païzis C, Deley G, Guérin-Deremaux L, Saniez M-H, Lefranc-Millot C, Allaert FA. Pea proteins oral supplementation promotes muscle thickness gains during resistance training: a double-blind, randomized, Placebo controlled clinical trial vs. Whey protein. J Intern Soc Sports Nutr. 2015; 12(1): 3.
  17. Cai Y, Sun M, Corke H. Characterization and application of betalain pigments from plants of the Amaranthaceae. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2005; 16(9): 370-6.
  18. Gamel TH, Linssen JP. Nutritional and medicinal aspects of amaranth. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. 2006; 15: 347-61.
  19. Iqbal JM, Hai Sumaira, Mahmood Zahid, Jamil Amer. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Amaranthus viridis Leaf and Seed extract. J Med Plants Res. 2012; 6: 4450-5.
  20. Islam M Ali, Ejaz Jamshaid M, Khan Javid. Antimicrobial and irritant activity of the extracts of Amarnthus viridis. Pak J Phrma. 2010; 1: 20-3.
  21. Kabuto H, Yamanushi TT, Janjua N, Takayama F, Mankura M. Effects of squalene/squalane on dopamine levels, antioxidant enzyme activity, and fatty acid composition in the striatum of Parkinson's disease mouse model. J Oleo Sci. 2013; 62(1): 21-8.
  22. Kausar Malik, Farkhanda Nawaz, Numrah Nisar. Antibacterial Activity of Amaranthus Viridis. Bull Env Pharmacol Life Sci. 2016; 5(4): 76-80.
  23. Mahesh B, Satish S. Antimicrobial activity of some important medicinal plants against plant and human pathogens. World J Agric Sci. 2008; 4: 839-43.
  24. Maiyo ZC, Nagure RM, Matasyoh JC, Chepkorir. Phtochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of three Amaranthus plant species. Afr J Biotech. 2009; 9: 3178-82.
  25. Mondal A, Maity TK. Antibacterial activity of a novel fatty acid (14E, 18E, 22E, 26E)-methyl nonacosa-14, 18, 22, 26 tetraenoate isolated from Amaranthus spinosus. Pharm Biol. 2016; 54(10): 2364-67.
  26. Montoya-Rodŕıguez Alvaro, Gómez-Favela Mario A., Reyes-Moreno Cuauhtèmoc, Milán-Carrillo Jorge, González de Mejía Elvira. Identification of Bioactive Peptide Sequences from Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) Seed Proteins and Their Potential Role in the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Compr Rev in Food Science and Food Safety. 2015; 14: 139-58.
  27. Nikolaevsky VA, Martirosyan DM, Muzalevskaya EN, Miroshnichenko L, Zoloedov VI. Hepatotropic, antioxidant and antitoxic action of amaranth oil. Funct Foods Health Disease. 2014; 4(5): 159-71.
  28. Ogrodowska Dorota, Zadernowski Ryszard, Czaplicki1 Sylwester, Derewiaka Dorota, Wronowska Beata. Amaranth Seeds and Products – The Source of Bioactive Compounds. Pol J Food Nutr Sci. 2014; 64(3): 165-70.
  29. Osuna-Castro JA, Rascón-Cruz Q, Napier J, Fido RJ, Shewry PR, Paredes-López O. Overexpression, purification, and in vitro refolding of the 11S globulin from amaranth seed in Escherichia coli. J Agric Food Chem. 2000; 48(11): 5249-55.
  30. Písaříková B, Kráčmar S, Herzig I. Amino acid contents and biological value of protein in various amaranth species. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 2005; 50(4): 169-74.
  31. Ramírez-Torres G, Ontiveros N, Lopez-Teros V, Ibarra-Diarte JA, Reyes-Moreno C, [et al.]. Amaranth Protein Hydrolysates Efficiently Reduce Systolic Blood Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Molecules. 2017; 22(11). pii: E1905.
  32. Rastogi A, Shukla S. Amaranth: A New Millennium Crop of Nutraceutical Values. Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013; 53(2): 109-25.
  33. Ravi Kumar S, Narayan B, Sawada Y, Hosokawa M, Miyashita K. Combined effect of astaxanthin and squalene on oxidative stress in vivo. Mol Cell Biochem. 2016; 417(1-2): 57-65.
  34. Saeidi S, Amini Boroujeni N, Ahmadi H, Hassanshahian M. Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Extracts Against Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2015; 8(2): e15434. eCollection 2015.
  35. Silva-Sánchez C, de la Rosa AP, León-Galván MF, de Lumen BO, de León-Rodríguez A, de Mejía EG. Bioactive peptides in amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seed. J Agric Food Chem. 2008; 56(4): 1233-40.
  36. Subramanian D, Gupta S. Pharmacokinetic study of amaranth extract in healthy humans: A randomized trial. Nutrition. 2016; 32(7-8): 748-53.
  37. Tang Y, Li X, Chen PX, Zhang B, Liu R, Hernandez M, et al. Assessing the Fatty Acid, Carotenoid, and Tocopherol Compositions of Amaranth and Quinoa Seeds Grown in Ontario and Their Overall Contribution to Nutritional Quality. J Agric Food Chem. 2016; 64(5): 1103-10.
  38. Tang Y, Tsao R. Phytochemicals in quinoa and amaranth grains and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and potential health beneficial effects: a review. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017; 61(7).
  39. Tosi E, Re E, Martinet R. Enzymatic predigestion of amaranth proteins. Am J Sci Technol. 2014; 1(4): 213-20.
  40. Vecchi B, Añón MC. ACE inhibitory tetrapeptides from Amaranthus hypochondriacus 11S globulin. Phytochemistry. 2009; 70(7): 864-70.
  41. Venskutonis Petras R., Kraujalis Paulius. Nutritional Components of Amaranth Seeds and Vegetables: A Review on Composition, Properties, and Uses. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2013; 12: 381-412.
  42. Available from:
  43. Available from: