The article presents a review of literature data on contemporary views on the role of microflora in the development of periodontitis. According to some authors, generalized periodontitis develops in response to the chronic persistence of specific periodontal microflora. All microorganisms of the oral cavity are symbiosis microflora, which is a part of the natural microflora in the human body and is in constant dynamic equilibrium. In clinical studies, it was noted that poor control of plaques leading to their accumulation contributed to the growth of the periodontal development, while good control (timely removal of dental plaque) prevented the progression of periodontal diseases, and antimicrobial therapy substantially improved periodontal condition. The experiments showed that the administration of subclinical bacteria into the gum caused the main pathogenetic symptoms of periodontal disease: inflammation, connective tissue destruction, vasculitis, osteoclastic bone resorption, and apical migration of the connective tissue (perineum) epithelium. Currently, more than 530 species and subspecies of microorganisms are sown in samples of the gingival and "planktonic" biofilms of the oral cavity, but not all periodontal pathogens are currently identified. A direct correlation was found between the severity of the inflammatory process in the periodontium and the degree of dissemination of the pathogenic microflora of the periodontal pockets and oral mucosa, periodontal pathogenic microorganisms that determine the transition of various forms of gingivitis to periodontitis were identified. However, the opinions of a number of scientists agree that the course of the pathological process in periodontal tissues is more determined by the immune response of the organism than by the pathogenicity of the microflora.
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