ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
  • 46 of 56
УЖМБС 2018, 3(6): 293–298

Non-Specific Organism Resistance in the Conditions of Acquired Myopia of Low and High Degree

Kolesnyk Y. I.

The article deals with the results of immunological research of the state of non-specific resistance of 18-35-year-olds in the conditions of acquired myopia. Phagocytic cells play a critical role in the non-specific defense against bacterial infections; they express a large number of cell surface receptors for the recognition of pathogen invasion and the inflammatory environment. Inappropriate activation of phagocytic cells (especially granulocytes neutrophils and monocytes) also contributes to tissue damage during autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this research is to determine the indicators of non-specific resistance in the conditions of acquired myopia of low and high degree. Material and methods. Various parameters of non-specific resistance (general amount of the leukocytes in the peripheral blood, relative and absolute amount of neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, lymphocytes, integral leukocyte indexes, phagocytosis) were assessed in 60 healthy people (control group), 30 people with low degree of acquired form of myopia and 30 people with high degree of acquired form of myopia (experimental group). The absolute amount of the leukocytes was counted by the generally accepted method with the help of the Goriaev chamber. The leukogram, the phagocytic number and the phagocytic index were determined in the blood smears painted by the Romanowsky-Giemsa method. Results and discussion. We found out that the examined parameters of non-specific resistance in people with acquired form of myopia of low and high degree did not go beyond homeostatic norm. Comparing to healthy controls, parameters of non-specific resistance in individuals with acquired myopia characterized by reduced absolute amount of the leukocyte number, per cent of segment-nuclear granulocytes, lymphocytes, increased per cent of monocytes, eosinophils and stab neutrophils. At the same time, the regulator violations on the index ratio of the populations of the peripheral blood cells like neutrophils/monocytes and lymphocytes/monocytes were discovered in myopes. The analysis of phagocytic number (FF) and phagocytic index (FI) in the studied groups showed that in the acquired low myopia the FF and FI were significantly lower than the control parameters; with a high degree a significant decrease of FI at the same value with the control values of the FF. The obtained results testify to the inhibition of the activity of phagocytic system in myopes, which is more pronounced with a low degree of myopia, than at its high values (in comparison with healthy people). Conclusion. It is proved that people with acquired form of myopia of low and high degree violated the quantitative balance of the white blood cells that participate in the reactions of non-specific defense, which also can have influence on forming specific immune answer. At the same time, the formation of adaptation compensatory mechanisms in non-specific immune response in people with acquired myopia is observed. Prospects for further research. The reduced content of the main immunocompetent cells and lowered level of the phagocytic activity directly affects the specific immune response to the pathogenic factor and can become a risk factor and deterioration of the body's defenses and needs monitoring. The results of the study of state of nonspecific resistance, as an integral part of the immune system, in people with acquired low and high myopia, will improve the effectiveness of immune correction and measures aimed at preventing the progression of the state of myopia.

Keywords: acquired myopia, non-specific resistance, granulocytes neutrophils, leukocytes, phagocytosis

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