ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
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УЖМБС 2018, 3(2): 21–25
Experimental Medicine and Morphology

Changes in the Alveolar Process in the Chronic Phase of Simulated Diabetes Mellitus (after 3 Months Period)

Hermanchuk S.

Diabetes mellitus holds one of the leading positions in the world. Since this disease is a consequence of insulin deficiency and involves a violation of the metabolism of all types of substances, this leads to the defeat of various organs and systems and, in the first place, the vascular bed. The damage to the small caliber vessels occurs faster and more often than the large ones. That is why the periodontal tissues state is an indicator of the first changes or disorders of the metabolic processes regulation from the endocrine system. The high incidence of oral hygiene (up to 90%) in patients with diabetes is due to changes in the microvascular system, resorption of bone tissue, lowering of local immune responses, which leads to the reduction in the periodontal endurance, while the usual chewing load becomes traumatic for supporting teeth. Most dental practitioners see the link between endocrine diseases and the oral cavity state, recognizing that the presence of diabetes malfunctions the course of dental pathology. At the same time, 36% of doctors believe that the dental pathology also worsens the course of diabetes, emphasizing the existence of a bi-directional relationship between diseases. Materials and Methods. The experiment was conducted on 160-180 g white laboratory rats kept on a standard diet under vivarium conditions. Animals from the experimental and control groups were removed from the experiment 90 days after the start. Materials of the research were the lower jaws, which were obtained during the slaughter of the control and experimental groups animals. In determining the number of osteocytes and osteoclasts, a count was made in five fields of one sample view to calculate the average value. Research of blood serum of rats was carried out according to standard methods for determining calcium, phosphorus, total and bone alkaline phosphatase. Results and Discussion. While comparing fragments of spongy bone with fibrous-fatty tissue in the intertrabucular space we found moderate-pronounced signs of resorptive changes: the phenomenon of osteoclastic resorption ("gaushyip" gaps) along the periphery of trabeculae; insignificant perioscytic and pericansalculatory resorption. Basophile lines have varying degrees of severity throughout the drug. In the gaps, there can be seen picnotypes of osteocytes. Bone beams are fragmented (maybe due to the preparation of drugs); most of them are elegant, festonic and located between the beam gaps. The connective tissue has a different degree of vascularization. The areas of fibrous tissue alternate with the foci of adipose tissue. In the fibrous tissue there are small fragments of bone tissue: it may be due to its severe atrophy (osteolysis) or vice versa with the onset of desmal osteogenesis with the formation of coarse fibrous bone tissue. A comparative analysis of the cellular composition of the aoleveolar process showed a great statistically significant reduction in the number of osteocytes and a significant increase in osteoclast almost twice as compared with the control group. After analyzing the obtained results of morphobiochemical indices of rats’ blood serum and changes of alveolar sprout bone tissue, it was found out that in the chronic stage of simulated diabetes, the quantitative composition of alkaline general and bone phosphatase, calcium and phosphorus is changed. A probable increase in total alkaline phosphatase indicates the presence of osteoclastic resorption and / or the opposite of the phenomena of initial desmal osteogenesis with the formation of coarse fibrous bone tissue. Conclusion. In the study of alveolar sprouts in the chronic stage of simulated diabetes, we have identified changes that indicate bone tissue resorption, which contributes to fibrous transformation, which, in turn, reduces adaptive forces of periodontal disease.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, periodontal disease, bone

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