ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
  • 17 of 39
УЖМБС 2017, 2(6): 81–86
Clinical Medicine

Interference Patterns of the Eye Cornea with Different States of Oculomotor Muscles

Kovtun N. M.

The pathology of the oculomotor apparatus, accompanied by strabismus, and disturbance of the binocular vision, have a significant specific gravity in the structure of eye diseases in children. According to various authors, between 0.5% and 3.5% of children suffer from obvious strabismus. In the structure of the child's ocular pathology the strabismus occupies the second place after refractive errors, its specific gravity makes 25.6% of the cases, the frequency is 3.9 per 1000. In children's eye hospitals, there are from 15 to 35% of patients with strabismus. Every year doctors diagnose strabismus in almost 50 thousand of children in Ukraine. Currently, coordinometry, computed tomography, optoelectronic method, photo and video diagnostic methods, chronaximetric electro-diagnostics, contact thermometry, and ultrasound investigation are used for studying the state of oculomotor muscles (OMM). Most of the above-mentioned methods of studying OMM do not allow to objectively evaluate their structural and functional state as well as determine the tactics of strabismus treatment. Objective methods such as thermometry, tomography, ultrasound diagnostics, electrode diagnostics require special equipment, in most cases anesthetics, which is not suitable for diagnosing children. The use of subjective methods, such as co-ordination, the method of provoked diplopia, evaluation and photographic registration of eyes state in eight (nine) positions, requires the patient to understand the instructions of the physician and actively participate in the procedure. This limits the possibilities of using these methods, for example, in examining small children or persons with a lowered intelligence. On the other hand, this complicates the process of creating modern diagnostic technologies for the state of OMM. The development of new non-invasive methods for studying and diagnosing the pathology of the oculomotor apparatus, based on the physical properties of the eye and its individual structures, is an urgent task. That is why, further improvement of objective methods for investigating the eye in polarized light is of great theoretical and practical interest. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the parameters of interference patterns of the eyes of patients with different types of strabismus. Results and its discussion. To identify the characteristics of changes in the parameters of the infrared eye in strabismus, we performed the study in polarized light of the eyes cornea in 75 patients (150 IP). All patients had eyes deviation of the from the orthophoric position. Among the examined patients there were 42 (56 ± 5,7)% of persons with converging strabismus, 12 (16 ± 4,2)% - with a divergent, 10 (13 ± 3,8)% - with a convergent strabismus with a vertical component, 11 (15 ± 4,1)% - with vertical strabismus. To compare the results, we determined the parameters of infrared 20 eyes of healthy individuals without strabismus. From the IP eye images, their parameters (the relative lengths of the diagonal segments and the angles between these segments) were determined, which allowed the construction of typical "portraits" of the IP with strabismus corresponding to different types of eye deflection. It is established that, normally, the angles between the segments of the diagonals of the interference rhombus are close to 90 degrees, for anomalies in the adherence of the OMM, they vary from 70 to 110 degrees. The analysis of the IP shape showed that when accommodating strabismus, the parameters of interference rhombus are similar to those of normal eyes. Horizontal eye deviations may occur not only because of the imbalance of the action of horizontal HDM, but also in anomalies of vertical muscle attachment.

Keywords: strabismus, oculomotor muscles, polarization-optical method, interference patterns

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