ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
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УЖМБС 2017, 2(4): 165–170

Characteristics of Sensory and Memory Response in Conditions of Auditory Deprivation

Zagaykan J. V., Sprin A. B.

The article deals with sensory deprivation influence on the psychophysiological state of a child. All over the world millions of people of all ages, especially children, suffer from problems associated with loss of vision or hearing. In a case of one or more analyzers disorder, limited information flow creates special conditions for the child's psyche development. The study concerning characteristics of human sensorimotor functions is important for understanding the physiological mechanisms of the integrative activity of the brain, which has a complex dynamic organization of its various structures and it develops an individual type of behavior. Sensorimotor reactions reflect integration between neurophysiological and mental processes. They show interaction between sensory and motor components in the process of human mental activity. Sensory and kinesthetic information coming from analyzers launches the regulation, control and correction for all types of psychomotor system. It establishes the cognitive functions in the process of children’s individual development. Coordination of the sensory and motor components in movement has expedient and adaptive characteristics. At the same time, it is the most important condition for optimal interaction and functioning for analyzers of the brain, which form the adequate images of the surrounding world. Well-known principles of I. Sechenov and I. Pavlov formed the pathophysiological substantiation for the hearing impairment influence on the neuropsychic state of a child. The scientists pointed out that the functional state of the central nervous system depends on the afferentation flow level. The activity of the central nervous system is supported by associative stimuli and it depends on the number of irritants and their irradiation. Primarily, it is a continuous correlation of the information coming from the outside world, its own programs of motor activities, congenital or acquired in the learning process, as well as the available information stored in the child's memory as "past experience". In recent decades, the researches have actively studied the impact of sensory deprivation on the psychophysiological state of children, but we still cannot create a coherent picture of the physical and mental characteristics for hearing-impaired child. Therefore, the actuality of the research lies in obtaining and evaluating new scientific data on the specificity of the sensory deprivation influence on the development of the main nervous processes properties. The analysis showed that most of the data on the problem of studying the psychophysiological parameters, as well as the properties of the main nervous processes in children with sensory deprivation, had not been studied sufficiently, it’s controversial and does not indicate the deprivation influence on the functional state of a child. Nowadays there are scientific works on psychology devoted to the research of intellectual activity. Nevertheless, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the higher human nervous activity in the conditions of deprivation are not sufficiently disclosed. Today we have begun studying psychophysiological functions of pupils with sensory deprivation. In the course of the study, we made a conclusion that children with sensory deprivation got worse results in sensory-motor response to acoustic and visual stimuli. Conducting an experiment, we apprehended that hearing-impaired children have significant verbal memory impairment, but the image memory develops at the proper level. With age the accuracy of cognition and reproduction of objects increases.

Keywords: sensory deprivation, neural functions, analyzer, irradiation, sensory-motor response, central nervous system, brake stimulus, strength of nervous processes, exposition

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