The state of humoral immunity in individuals from the territories of the intensified radioecological control of Sumy region is under investigation. Contamination of large areas with radionuclides due to the Chernobyl accident is considered to be an immunosuppressive factor for the population of Ukraine. The purpose of this research is to determine the indicators of humoral immunity of individuals in the territories of intensified radioecological control of the Sumy region. Methods and materials. The examined people were divided into two groups: residents of radiation free areas (control group, 80 persons) and the inhabitants of the areas of enhanced radiation monitoring (experimental group, 80 persons). Indicators of cellular immunity were determined by immunophenotyping and dyeing on Romanowsky-Giemsa. The level of immunoglobulins in blood plasma was determined by radial immunodiffusion on Mancini. Results and their discussion. We found out that the examined people from radiation free areas had quite stable humoral indices that did not go beyond homeostatic norm. The absolute and relative number of B-lymphocytes with the CD22 phenotype in people from contaminated territories of Sumy region was 21% and 9% higher than the control indicators. In our opinion, an increase in the absolute number of B-lymphocytes (CD22) is a compensatory response to a decrease in the total level of leukocytes. According to literary sources, an increase in the relative number of B-lymphocytes compensates for some immunosuppression of the T-cell immunity. In residents of territories contaminated with radionuclides, there was observed a redistribution of indices of specific immunity in favor of increase of serum immunoglobulin IgM and lowering the level of immunoglobulin’s concentration on the background of the absence of strongly pronounced dynamics of antibody-forming cells. Conclusions. The obtained results indicate the functional load of the humoral part of immune system among the population of radiation-polluted territories of the Sumy region. At the same time, the formation of compensatory mechanisms in response to low-intensity prolonged radiation irradiation is observed. Prospects for further research. The results of the study showed the necessity of carrying out immunological surveys among the population of intensified radioecological control of our state (and in particular of Sumy region) in order to carry out immunorehabilitation measures for this category of population.
Full text: PDF (Ukr) 184K