The influence of lead compounds on human organism during prenatal and postnatal development is an important topic for discussing by modern scientists. Effects of lead exposure are multifaceted and cause wide range of changes in organs of human body. Pregnant woman and fetus are particularly sensitive to lead exposure. So it is important to find ways to protect mother’s and child’s organism from the negative effects of lead. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of lead acetate on embryotoxicity of rats in isolated injection and in combination with silver citrate, determine the relationship between the embryotoxicity of studied substances and morphological changes in the reproductive organs (ovaries and placenta) in experimental conditions. Material and methods. The study was conducted on 72 white mature pregnant female rats Wistar. All rats were divided into 3 groups: Group I – animals injected with solution of lead acetate at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg; Group II – animals injected with solution of lead acetate at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg and solution of silver citrate at a dose of 2 mcg/kg; III group – control, animals injected with distilled water. Rats were mated by the standard scheme. First day of pregnancy was identified from the moment of determining of sperm in vaginal swab. Solutions of heavy metals and nanometals were injected to pregnant female through a tube once a day, at one and the same time. Operative slaughter was performed on 12th, 16th and 20th day of pregnancy. Ovaries and uterus with embryo were separated. The animals were taken out of the experiment by an overdose of ether anesthesia. Number of corpora lutea was determined in ovaries. Number of live, dead and resorbed fetuses was determined in uterus. Fetuses were studied by macro- and microscopic methods of investigation, weighed. Results and discussion. Embryotoxic effect of lead acetate and metal citrates was estimated by the next indicators: fertility index, total embryonic mortality, preimplant and postimplant mortality, number of fetuses per 1 female and fetal-placental ratio. The obtained results were processed by the method of variation statistics. Embryotoxicity of lead acetate was found, which was manifested in a significant reduction in the number of live fetuses by 27.0% (p < 0.01) at the 12th day of pregnancy, by 25.5% (p < 0.01) at the 16th day and by 16.7% (p < 0.05) – on the 20th day of pregnancy relative to the control group and increase fetal mortality more than 2 times in comparison with control group. It was accompanied by a decrease in the weight of the fetuses: on the 12th day of embryogenesis (-16.7%, p < 0.001), the 16th day (-19.9%, p < 0.001) and the 20th day of embryogenesis (- 7.3%, p < 0.05). In experimental group of combined injection of lead acetate and silver citrate, there was a tendency to increase the number of live fetuses per female compared with the group receiving lead acetate during pregnancy: for the 12th day – by 43.1 % (p < 0,01), on the 16th – by 47,1% (p < 0,01) and on the 20th day – by 34,7% (p < 0,01). Conclusions. The study showed that the combined injection of silver citrate on the background of the lead effects prevents negative influence of lead acetate on the reproductive system and processes of embryonic development of fetus, which is manifested in the decrease of embryomortality and increasing the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy, number of live fetuses. The revealed correlations of morphometric indices of the placenta with the indices of embryotoxicity and morphometric indices of the ovaries with the mortality rate of the fetuses confirms the negative influence of lead acetate solution on the reproductive system and the fetoplacental complex, but still requires further in-depth study, as it may be caused by a wide diapason of factors that lead to perinatal mortality.
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