ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
  • 5 of 58
JMBS 2020, 5(6): 44–50
Medicine. Reviews

Quantity of Third Molar Pathology. Current State of the Issue

Pohodenko-Chudakova I. O.1,3, Ali Thergam Abdulameer Ali 1, Yadchenko V. N. 2,3

Pathological conditions associated with anomalies of formation, eruption, the presence of third molars in the oral cavity of patients and the development of a significant number of complications due to this continue to be relevant in recent decades for dentists of all specialties. In adult individuals, diseases of the third molars in 7.27% are the reason for contacting dental health institutions. The purpose of the work was to analyze the frequency of third molar pathology at the present stage, identify unresolved issues and determine the directions for further clinical and laboratory research based on the data available in Russian and foreign specialized literature. Material and methods. The analysis of special literature containing information about the number of pathological cases of the third molars was carried out. The list of analyzed special literature included: periodicals for the last 15-20 years, basic manuals, monographs and articles published different years. The descriptive method is used for the analysis. Results and discussion. Due to the prevalence, all pathological processes associated with the third molars can be divided into three groups. The first of them consists of clinical situations that lead to pathological changes on the part of occlusion. The second group should include retention and dystopia of intact third molars that do not have any inflammatory and destructive processes and negative occlusal factor. The third group should include the third molars as retinated, dystopian and erupted with the existing inflammatory and destructive processes. The latter group deserves special attention due to the following facts. First, 1/5 of the entire practically healthy young population has anomalies in the position of the third molars, the eruption of which is complicated by infectious and inflammatory processes. Secondly, in multi-specialty hospitals, 15-18% of adult patients are individuals with acute odonogenic infectious and inflammatory processes caused by the third molars. Third, this pathology affects people of working and fertile age. Fourthly, this issue is very important for military dentistry, as it is one of the main reasons for the appeal of military personnel on conscription and contract to a dentist both in the military unit and in the dental clinic. Conclusion. Based on the analysis of the frequency of pathology of third molars at the present stage, the most relevant nosologies were identified and unresolved issues related to them. The results of analysis will determine the direction of further clinical and laboratory studies

Keywords: third molars, pericoronaritis, periodontitis, inflammatory and destructive process, infectious and inflammatory complications

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