A modern concept of chronic renal disease presumes a study of the role of endothelial dysfunction, morphological signs of which correlate with progressive decrease of renal function and development of sclerosis. Renal toxicity of most medicated preparations at the later stages of pathology development implies a search for alternative therapeutic methods. Combined therapy of certain diseases involves preparations of placental origin, which possess immune-modulating, anti-inflammatory properties, thus intensifying the processes of tissue reparative regeneration. The purpose of the research was to investigate the action of the allogenic placental cryoextract on the morphological state of the rat aortal endothelium with acute and chronic renal insufficiency. Material and methods. Renal insufficiency was modelled by intramuscular injections of 50%-glycerol at a dose of 1 ml/100 g. PCE was harvested from rat placentas, which were homogenized, frozen down to -20oC and stored for 24 hours. Thawing was followed by adding physiological saline, centrifugation and filtering. The supernatant was stored in plastic test tubes in liquid nitrogen. Placental cryoextract was injected at a dose of 0.5 ml thrice a week to different groups of animals during the 2nd, 2nd- 3rd and 9th weeks of pathology development. The rats were withdrawn from the experiments in 3 (with acute renal insufficiency) and 16 (with chronic renal insufficiency) weeks. The areas of endotheliocytes and their adjacency were measured using silver-impregnated aortal preparations. Results and discussion. In intact rats the cell areas were dispensed within the range of 100-800 µm2, while their adjacency varied from 4 to 8 with predomination of cells with the adjacency values of 5 and 6. All the animals affected by acute renal insufficiency demonstrated a decrease in the areas of endotheliocytes, the values of which in 80-90% of cells varied from 200 to 500 µm2 irrespective of the placental cryoextract injections, while the number of microendotheliocytes (up to 300 µm2) comprised 24-37%. Thus, it probably testified to intensification of the reparative processes in the endothelial lining. In the rats affected by chronic renal insufficiency, 77% of endotheliocytes were of the areas up to 400 µm2, while the number of microendotheliocytes comprised 69%, thus increasing the normal values 10 fold and demonstrating a shift of indices towards the range of 3 and 4. In the animals affected both by acute and chronic renal insufficiency received 6 placental cryoextract injections, the number of cells with the adjacencies of 7-8 was 28%, while the adjacency of 4 was observed in 4% of cells, thus indicating a high proliferative potential of endotheliocytes. Conclusion. Threefold and, to a greater degree, sixfold injections of placental cryoextracts during acute and chronic renal insufficiency facilitated recovery of the endothelial lining in thoracic aorta with a distribution of the cell areas and adjacencies, which were maximum close to those features of intact animals, and stimulated proliferative and reparative process in the endothelium as well.
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