ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
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JMBS 2020, 5(3): 10–19
Medicine. Reviews

Analysis of Genetic Features of Differential Susceptibility to 2019-nCoV / SARS-CoV-2 in Human Beings

Fedota О. M. 1, Skrypkina I. Ya. 2

Genetic polymorphism of human beings from different ethnic, age groups and different sex determines variability in the degree of susceptibility to SARS-CoV and states that the highest indicators of severity and mortality of COVID-19 were observed in men of older age with comorbid conditions. The possibility of receiving SARS-CoV-2 with ACE2 has been described. Its expression is noted in the tissues of several organs. The enrichment of the tongue epithelial cells by receptor has been proved, which explains the main mechanism of a high risk of susceptibility to the 2019-nCoV oral cavity. The pleiotropic effect of the ACE2 gene is manifested in its ability to detect several traits: to act as a coronovirus receptor and to act as a renin-angiotensin systems enzyme. The ACE2 gene polymorphism determines the possibilities of interaction between the receptor and the virus, the nature of its expression, and its predisposition to the development of cardiometabolic syndrome. Differences in the level of ACE2 expression in people of different sex, age, ethnicity could be the reason for different susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 infection and the severity of COVID-19 among different population groups. Arguments are presented in favor of the protective role of ACE2 high expression against death in SARS-CoV2 infection because an inverse relationship was found between mortality in CovіD-19 and ACE2 expression level. People with blood group A have 1.2 times higher risk to have severe degree of clinical manifestations than people with all other blood groups, and people with blood group O have a risk of 0.67 times less than the others. The urgency of using molecular genetic tests in the diagnosis of viral infection is explained by their high sensitivity, the ability to work with different biological samples, and getting quick results. Along with the traditional methods of antiviral therapy, the promising direction is to use stem cells of different types in the treatment of complications, degenerative processes of the respiratory system, COVID-19. The study of the genetic characteristics of their own population, the development of a molecular testing system for genetic and infectious diseases are priority areas for improving the genetic safety of each population.

Keywords: SARS-CoV, CovіD-19, genetic polymorphism, ACE2 expression, risk groups

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