The problem of treating purulent–inflammatory processes of soft tissues is very important and relevant in connection with an increase in the number of patients with this pathology as well as frequent postoperative complications. But the resistance of microorganisms to existing antibacterial drugs makes us look for new ways to solve this problem. Silver nanoparticles are a good alternative in the fight against microorganisms due to the lack of resistance. The purpose of the study was to substantiate the effectiveness of the treatment of purulent wounds with silver nanoparticles by cytological examination. Material and Methods. This study was carried out on 40 white nonlinear male rats , which were equally divided into 2 groups. In the first, main group, the treatment was carried out by washing the wounds with a 0.01% solution of silver nanoparticles, followed by gauze dressing with a 0.02% solution of silver nanoparticles; in the second, control group, a 0.05 % Chlorhexidine solution was used. Silver nanoparticles with a size of 10–60 nm were synthesized by the polyol method, using silver nitrate, ethylene glycol and polyvinylpyrrolidone as precursors. Results and discussion. The study showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the silver nanoparticles and Chlorhexidine groups on the first day. On the third day, a statistically significant increase in phagocytic neutrophilic leukocytes and fibroblasts was observed in the silver nanoparticles group compared with the first day. In comparison with the Chlorhexidine group, the number of monocytes (1.6 times) and macrophages (1.3 times) increased in the silver nanoparticles group, and the necrotic type of cytograms was not determined. On the seventh day, granulation tissue began to appear in the silver nanoparticles group, the percentage of leukocyte destruction decreased (3.4 times), microorganisms were almost not detected, and regenerative types of cytograms appeared for the first time. The number of neutrophils in the control group exceeded the analogous parameter of the silver nanoparticles group by 1.9 times. The number of fibroblasts became larger (1.5 times) in the silver nanoparticles groups, compared with the group where Chlorhexidine was used. On the tenth day, the number of fibroblasts and the monocytic–macrophage series cells increased in the control group, which indicates later regenerative processes. On the 15–16th day, there was a complete epithelization of wounds in the silver nanoparticles group, while healing occurred on the 21st day in the control group. Conclusion. The use of silver nanoparticles significantly improves the cytological parameters of purulent wound healing and has clear advantages over the use of Chlorhexidine. The presented method reduces the treatment time and can be prospectively introduced into surgical practice.
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