One of the topical problems of modern dentistry is prevention and treatment of diseases of hard tissues of teeth and periodontal tissues in children. This is especially true for children with psycho-neurological disorders. Nowadays, in Ukraine, oligophrenia or mental retardation of varying degrees are diagnosed in 638,6 persons per hundred thousand children. Among the causes of primary disability since childhood, the proportion of mental retardation is 80-95%. An important role in the pathogenesis of major dental diseases is tooth decay and periodontal disease which belongs to the secretory immunity of the oral cavity, which is the first immunological barrier that protects the body from various antigenic stimuli. The state of the local non-specific immunity of the oral cavity reflects the overall immunological reactivity of the organism at the level of the mucous membranes. It is manifested by local antibody production, as well as local factors protecting the oral fluid - immunoglobulins of classes A, M, G and secretory immunoglobulin A, which is a biological marker that detects changes in the system regulation of the body. The purpose of the research was to study the immunological status of the oral cavity of mentally retarded children with caries and chronic catarrhal gingivitis. We also studied changes in the concentrations of classes A, M, G and secretory immunoglobulin A in the oral liquid. Material and discussion. The study of the immunological state of oral fluid was carried out in 24 oligophrenic children with caries and chronic catarrhal gingivitis patients (main group) and 20 children with caries and chronic catarrhal gingivitis without psychoneurological pathology (comparison group). The obtained data were compared with the values of 20 healthy children who were included in the control group. Results and discussion. The results of the conducted studies showed that the average content of immunoglobulins in the oral liquid in children with oligophrenia was significantly lower compared to the children of the comparison and control groups. Thus, the content of sIgA in the oral liquid of oligophrenic children, patients with caries and chronic catarrhal gingivitis was 0.075 ± 0.006 g / l, which was 1.4 times less than the data of children with major dental diseases, not burdened with CNS pathology (0.107 ± 0.009 g / l) and 1.7 times less than the data of healthy children (0.129 ± 0.007 g / l). The concentration of IgA in the oral liquid of the children of the main group was 0.584 ± 0.012 g / l and was 1.8 times lower than that of the children of the comparison group (1.075 ± 0.014 g / l) and 2.8 times less than in the control group (1.624 ± 0.019 g / l). The mean value of IgM content in the mouth fluid in children with intellectual decline was the lowest (0.711 ± 0.014 g / l) as compared to the data of the comparison group (0.969 ± 0.016 g / l) and control group (1.723 ± 0.016 g / l). The main group children had 0.711 ± 0.014 g / l of the minimum average concentration of IgG in the oral fluid compared to the 0.971 ± 0.015 g / l comparison group and the value of 1.530 ± 0.013 g / l in the control group. Conclusions. As a result of the research, it was found outthat with the age of children, the concentration of immunoglobulins decreased in both groups, but in the children of the main group this process was more intense. The obtained data on the reduction of the concentration of secretory IgA and IgA, IgM, IgG in the oral liquid of children with major dental diseases testify to the weakening of the adaptive-compensatory mechanisms of secretory immunity in mentally retarded children compared to children without psychoneurological pathology.
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