It is well known that the state of visual impairment is not isolated, congenital or acquired pathology of the organ of vision which makes it difficult for a child to socialize. It also leads to break in socialization, and shift from the society. Children with disabilities are suspended from society, which extremely adversely affects their personality and position in this society. That is why, there appeared specialized institutions (schools and rehabilitation centers), where children are engaged in therapeutic work, socio-psycho-hygienic adaptation (in the case of the late blind it is re-adaptation) with a view to integrate the disabled with vision pathology into society. Since all organs and systems in the human body are in close interrelation, the presence of the children visual impairments leads to the formation of specific psychological and pedagogical features. The formation and development of the psychological system of children with visual impairment is directly related to corrective work. Correction of primary partial defect by medical-pedagogical and psycho-hygienic means increases compensatory possibilities. State special (correctional) educational institutions for the blind and visually impaired are an integral part of the unified state system of special education and performs the following functions in relation to children with visual impairments: educational, sanitary and hygienic, corrective-developing, socio-adaptive, rehabilitative, career-oriented. Among the basic functions, the main tasks of specialized educational institutions for children with visual impairments are formed with the help of providing students with a standard of special education; forming corrective-compensatory skills and skills for obtaining a high-grade, full-fledged education; providing medical, psychological and pedagogical support of educational activities; identifying the reserve possibilities for the development of each child, the development of compensation processes, the correction and restoration of impaired functions, the smoothing of shortcomings in cognitive activity, and the search for potential opportunities in the formation of the personality of blind and visually impaired children. The purpose of the study was to establish risk factors for living conditions, as well as studying the peculiarities of educational, sanitary, correction, development, social and adaptive work that are carried out in specialized educational institutions. The article presents the results of studying the educational and training regime according to the schedule of training sessions and the extracurricular regime of the day, the measurements of microclimate indicators, natural and artificial lighting, and levels of noise in school premises. Evaluation of the specific features of student’s life in specialized educational institutions was carried out using the questionnaire "Lifestyle". Thus, when planning hygienic measures to optimize the day regimen of adolescents with visual impairments, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the conditions of upbringing, education and maintenance of pupils, and the guarding-pedagogical training mode. Activities should be aimed at creating special conditions for the correction of general and psycho-emotional development, medical and social rehabilitation, and restoration of general and mental health.
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