The change in the environment of the industrialized countries prompts an intensive study of the impact of environmental factors on biological objects. The growth of urbanization inevitably leads to the complication of environmental conditions in cities, in the areas occupied by industrial enterprises, transport highways, as well as in the adjacent territories. In many countries, the priority group of eco-toxicants are heavy metals and, in particular, cadmium that reacts with superphosphate and is easily digested by plants in fairly large quantities. Thus, the problematic direction of morphological experimental research is the search for new possible bioanatogonists of toxicity of cadmium compounds among microelements that are capable of influencing dyslementosis, supporting the homeostasis of the organism, including during pregnancy. The experiment used nanocomposite of sulfur citrate and iodine citrate. Sulfur is involved in metabolic processes in the body and promotes the normalization of these processes, it is also a building block of amino acids, enzymes, vitamins and hormones, including insulin. Study of the content of sulfur and its metabolism is of great importance for medical science and practice. Iodine is involved in regulation: energy metabolism, body temperature; the rate of biochemical reactions; exchange of proteins, fats, water-electrolyte exchange; metabolism of a number of vitamins; processes of growth and development, including neuropsychiatric development. The purpose of the study was to experimentally determine the modifying effect of nanocomposite of sulfur citrate and iodine citrate on the embryotoxicity of cadmium chloride when administered intragastric to rats. Material and methods. To simulate the effects and toxic effects of exposure to cadmium, throughout the pregnancy, Wistar's female rats received cadmium chloride (1.0 mg / kg) each rat daily through the probe. In the second experimental group, the combined administration of cadmium chloride (1.0 mg / kg) and nanocomposite containing iodine citrate and sulfur citrate (2 μg / kg) were performed in a dose of 1.0 mg / kg. The probable negative effect of the test substance on embryonic development was judged by the ability to increase the level of embryonic mortality (embryoal effect) and cause external and structural defects in the development of internal organs (teratogenic effect). The overall development of embryos was evaluated by the number of embryos, the number of yellow fetuses in the ovaries of females, the body mass of the embryo, and its compliance with the developmental stage according to generally accepted criteria for embryonic development of rats. Results and discussion. Comparison of the results of the embryotropic action of low doses of cadmium chloride with the parameters of the control group revealed its embryotoxicity, with practically the same number of yellow bodies of pregnancy (10.25 ± 0.27) in the group of exposure to cadmium chloride there is a significant (p <0.05) decrease in the number of live embryos by 11.7% on the 13th day and by 17.3% on the 20th day of embryogenesis. When combined with the introduction of cadmium chloride and nanocomposite consisting of iodine and sulfur citrates, the decrease in the number of embryos in comparison with the control values was significantly lower: on the 13th day the decrease was 7.8%, and on the 20th day it was 3.9% . Such data indicate a decrease in the level of embryotoxicity of cadmium chloride by nanocomposite when combined with the introduction into the experiment in rats. The calculation of the indicators of general embryonic mortality revealed that the highest level of this indicator was determined on the 20th day of embryogenesis in the group of isolated effects of cadmium chloride and was 23.17 ± 1.43, which was 3.16 times greater than control. This situation was due to an increase in both preimplantation and post implantation mortality in the experimental group. Conclusions. The rates of embryonic development were better when combined with cadmium chloride with sulfur and iodine citrate (nanocomposite) than the cadmium intoxication group. It indicates the modifying effect of the nanocomposite on the embryotoxicity of cadmium chloride.
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