In current study the cellular composition of the mucous membrane of the descending colon of rats in the area of anastomosis was studied on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st and 30th days after the operation. Two groups of animals were examined: the first one – rats – with a single-seated colostomy anastomosis, using the suture material Vikril 5.0". The animals of the second group, after applying a single-row seam, added a modern adhesive for Katsil fabrics. It was revealed that the use of an adhesive for Katsil tissues, due to bacterial and homeostatic action, reduces bacterial infection of the intestinal wall, which contributes to a faster abating of the inflammatory reaction, after damage and greater activity of the reducing processes in this area. It is well-known that the inability of intestinal sutures is a dangerous complication of surgical operations with a mortality rate of up to 68%. In this case, 45-69% of them are caused by purulent-septic complications, the most severe of which is peritonitis, which develops as a result of abdominal cavity infection with microorganisms from the lumen of the intestinal tube. The problem of efficient choice of intestinal seams is still unresolved. In surgical practice, during surgical interventions on hollow organs, one of the most important stages of the operation is the formation of reliable anastomosis. The analysis of histological changes showed that the hemorrhage of the colon anastomosis is marked by the same type of standard sequence of pathological processes. The first stage is characterized by acute inflammation development in the area of communication. The predominant cells in the inflammatory infiltrates are neutrophilic leukocytes, the highest levels of which were found in the first group of experimental animals. It is believed that the lower level of these cells was observed in the second experimental group of rats, and at the end of this stage, their number decreased even more, indicating a reduction of acute inflammatory changes and the transition to the next stage – the beginning of recovery processes. It was characterized by epithelization of mucous membranes. First of all, the covering function of the epithelium was activated, it grew from the edges of the wound, sprouting under necrotic surfaces and lining the granulation tissue formed in the submucosal mucosa. The closure of the ulcerative defect was an important stage in the reparative period, preventing further infiltration of the deep layers, creates conditions for the normal formation of the scar. In a group of rats, during the anastomosis overlay, which was used only by the suture material Vikril regeneration of the epithelium was observed later than in the group, with the addition of adhesive. Complete epithelization of the mucous membrane in the rats of the second experimental group occurred two weeks after the operation, whereas in rats classified in the first group, this process was delayed until the twenty-first day, which was associated with a larger inflammatory process, a more significant infection of the deep layers of the body wall and a longer transition to the next stage. Also, in the first experimental group there was a noticeable delay in the differentiation of epithelial cells, which lasted for a long time, until the end of the experiment. In the second experiment group, the transformation of epithelial enterocytes into typical cylindrical cells began at the fourteenth day and to the third week of the postoperative period.
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