ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
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JMBS 2021, 6(3): 71–77
Medicine. Reviews

Ontology of Variants of the Structure and Malformations of the Skull. Part II. Hereditary Syndromes

Khmara T. V., Ryznychuk M. O., Kuzniak N. B., Melnychuk S. P., Batranovska S. O., Zamorskii I. I.

Congenital abnormalities occur in 2-3% of all children and about 1% have hereditary syndromes or multiple malformations. About 30% of all cases have a cleft lip or palate. Genetic factors such as chromosomal abnormalities and gene mutations cause about 15% of congenital abnormalities; exogenous environmental factors cause about 10% of defects; a combination of genetic and environmental factors (multifactorial inheritance) cause 20-25%; multiple pregnancy causes 0.5-1% of congenital abnormalities. Craniofacial anomalies represent an important pediatric problem. They are among the leading causes of infant mortality and morbidity. Craniofacial anomalies mainly affect the development of the skull and facial bones. These defects range from mild to severe, which can be life-threatening and require immediate surgical intervention. Examination of patients with congenital cranial pathology is of particular importance, since a correct diagnosis can often be established only by taking into consideration all stigmas and malformations. The onset of pathology occurs during ontogenesis: normal embryonic development is disturbed under the influence of exogenous and endogenous factors, to which the body is particularly sensitive during critical periods. The consequences of various endogenous and exogenous factors are disruption of growth and development of the organism and occurrence of congenital malformations as an independent unit or occurrence of hereditary syndromes as a set of certain symptoms. Craniofacial syndromes can be divided into several groups. They are most often accompanied by premature fusion of cranial sutures (craniosynostosis) and syndromes with cleft formation. The most frequent syndromes in this group are: Crouzon syndrome, suture synostosis, microsomia, cerebral anomalies and midface clefts. These developmental disorders can lead to a variety of health consequences, namely affecting these patients’ respiratory health, appearance, brain development, hearing, vision, bite, speech, and mental development. Congenital malformations of the skull bones can be related to genetic mutations and environmental factors. Conclusion. Based on the analysis of the literature, a brief clinical characterization of the most common hereditary syndromes accompanied by cerebral and facial skull deformities is given, the type of inheritance and the gene mutation that causes these disorders are indicated

Keywords: congenital malformations, stigmas, skull, hereditary syndromes

Full text: PDF (Ukr) 307K

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