ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
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JMBS 2021, 6(1): 125–131
Clinical Medicine

Peculiarities of the Pathology of Gastrointestinal Tract in Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease on the Background of Hypothyroidism

Reva T. V., Reva V. B., Trefanenko I. V., Shumko G. І., Shuper V. O.

The article identifies the features of the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease on the background of hypothyroidism. The frequency of gastroesophageal reflux disease and the severity of this disease increase with age and the presence of comorbid pathology. In the elderly, the frequency of the typical esophageal manifestations decreases, and the erosive esophagitis with atypical symptoms is more common. The growing number of cases of combined thyroid dysfunction with gastropathology requires in-depth study of the reasons for the relationship between these processes. Pathological changes in the gastrointestinal tract in these patients make their condition severer, contributing to the development and progression of metabolic disorders. An important aggravating effect on the regulatory mechanisms of esophageal kinetics has a pathological functioning of the thyroid gland on the background of iodine deficiency. Results and discussion. In patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease with hypothyroidism, all changes in gastric and duodenal function are associated with a decrease in the acid-forming function of the gastric mucosa, due to its atrophy, decreased tone and contractility of the stomach. This in turn leads to a slowing of gastric and duodenal evacuation, dysfunction of the closing capacity of the cardia and, as a consequence, the development of duodenogastroesophageal reflux. The esophageal contents are not so pronounced, so patients with non-erosive forms of esophagitis predominate (46.2%) against 16% of patients in the second group (patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease). At the same time, erosive forms predominate among patients in the control group with predominant acid reflux. It should be noted that there is a clear relationship between the frequency of erosive changes in the esophageal mucosa and the duration of the disease. Thus, among patients of the main group with a 5-year history of the disease, the number of erosive forms of gastroesophageal reflux disease was minimal. The number of erosive changes in the esophageal mucosa increased sharply in patients with a 10-year history and reached its maximum after 15 years from the onset of the disease. Conclusion. The delay in gastric evacuation is more pronounced in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease on the background of hypothyroidism. It can be explained by a decrease in gastric motility and the presence of duodenostasis. The slowing of gastric evacuation was more pronounced in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease on the background of reduced thyroid function. In patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease on the background of hypothyroidism there is an alkaline duodenogastroesophageal reflux as a consequence of reduced acid-forming function of the gastric mucosa and reduced contractility of the stomach and duodenum

Keywords: gastroesophageal reflux disease, hypothyroidism, comorbidity, pathology of the gastrointestinal tract

Full text: PDF (Ukr) 505K

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