ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
  • 47 of 67
JMBS 2020, 5(3): 351–358
Physical Therapy and Ergotherapy

Sensorimotor Indicators as Criteria of the Intense Physical Loads Influence on the Athlete's Body

Guzii O. V. 1, Romanchuk A. P. 2, Мahlovanyy A. V. 3

Studies of sensorimotor function are used to assess the functional state of the central nervous system, sensory sensitivity, development of motor skills, psychophysiological and neurophysiological parameters of brain functioning. The study of the functionality of the central nervous system, taking into account the speed and accuracy of performance of sensorimotor tests allows identifying functional shifts in conditions of variable afferentation. The purpose of the article was to determine the indicators of the sensorimotor function of highly qualified athletes, which are informative about the influence of physical loads and recovery of the organism after it. Material and methods. Tests before training (К1), immediately after exercise (К2), and the morning after exercise (К3) were carried out using the computerized motion meter (CMM). With the help of CMM-3, the results of three simple right and left hand movement tests were applied to determine 25 digital motion parameters: the duration of the movements cycle (DMC, sec), switching central settings (SCS, sec), implementation time of flexion and extension (ITF and ITE, sec), short-term motor memory (STMM, sec), response time to the sound stimulus (RTSS, sec), response time to the light stimulus (RTLS, sec), error correction of flexors and extensors (ECF and ECE, sec), smooth movement (SM, %), balance of extensors and flexors with and without visual control (BEVC, BFVC, BEWVC and BFWVC, %), and asymmetry factor motor control movements (Ass, %). Results and discussion. Examination of highly skilled athletes of different sports showed that the informative indicators of sensorimotor function related to the influence of intense physical loads, in the first place, can be attributed to indices that, in our opinion, characterize the trace effects of training physical loads: reaction to visual object, the speed of action, which are physiological properties that ensure the effectiveness of sports activities, especially in acyclic sports. Moreover, during the recovery period (К3), most indicators reveal returning to baseline or have a clear tendency to do so. More attention in this regard deserves the switching central settings (sec), which characterizes the central mechanism of regulation, namely the switching in the prefrontal zone of the cerebral cortex, which is responsible for attention. At the same time, an increase in the time of this parameter indicates a worsening of the modification of the performed actions and a worsening of the motor adaptation of the athletes. These indices can be most informative indicators in the definition of overwork. The study showed that the parameter switching central settings (sec) when performing the test with the right hand was 2.04 (1.21; 3.77), the morning after training the morning was significantly different from the initial values of 1.62 (1.07; 3.08), (p <0.05), its values after the training load of 1.57 (1.13; 3.36), (p <0.05), as well as the values obtained when testing with the left hand 1.67 (1.24; 2.35), (p <0.05). Conclusion. The obtained results allowed us to assume that the switching central settings is the most informative indicator. It characterizes the regulatory mechanisms in the prefrontal zone of the cerebral cortex, and signals the deterioration in the motor adaptation of athletes.

Keywords: athletes, neurophysiological parameters, sensorimotor function, switching of central settings

Full text: PDF (Ukr) 421K

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