Playing sports is an important determinant of the overall children’s health. Respiratory gas measurement is the "gold standard" for determining aerobic eligibility for sports, but physiological responses to exercise during growth and development of children haven’t been studied thoroughly, especially in young athletes. The purpose of the study was to determine the volumetric-velocity characteristics of the respiratory system of children engaged in football, depending on the duration of training. Material and methods. The study included data from 62 male children aged 10-11 years, 50 children of them attended football sections for more than 4 years (17); from 2 to 4 years (19); less than 2 years (14). The control group consisted of 12 children of the same age and sex who do not play sports. We performed anthropometric evaluation that included height and weight measurement. The pulmonary function test was performed with spirometers “Custo-Vit” (Germany) and “XAI-Medica” (Ukraine). Statistical analysis was performed with nonparametric tests Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney. Results and discussion. The results of anthropometric assessments had no significant difference in boys who play football regardless of sport activity duration and those who were not involved in sport. When we compared 10-11-year-old football players and non-athletes of the same age, we noted that pulmonary function test results (vital capacity, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, maximal expiratory flows) did not show any significant change. Sings of bronchial obstruction were not found in both groups. The values of tidal volume and minute respiratory volume were lower in not-athletes compared to football players, despite the duration of sport activity (even if it was less than two years). This fact may be the evidence of fast respiratory system adaptation in boys of middle childhood during football training. 10-11 years old boys involved in football training had no signs of bronchial obstruction according to the pulmonary function test. Authors presume that the respiratory system adaptation to a physical activity in children of middle childhood period occurs during a short time period since those who have been training for less than two years demonstrate such adaptation. Conclusion. The study of respiratory system adaptation in athletes involved in different kinds of sport activity is the subject of further research and discussion, especially in childhood. The perspectives are to determine the effect of different physical activities, different types of sport on the respiratory system, depending on the age of children. It is promising to determine the prognostic criteria for the formation of pathological changes of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in athletes.
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