Osteoarthritis of the large joints (hip and knee) is a very urgent problem in modern traumatology and orthopedics. Diagnosis of joint disease in clinical practice is based on a number of methods: clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods, but a patient with large joint osteoarthritis also needs extensive laboratory examinations. The purpose of the study was to analyze the results of the biochemical study of the blood of patients with hip and knee joint osteoarthritis at different stages of the disease. Material and methods. The study was conducted based on the Department of Laboratory Diagnostics and Immunology Sytenko Institute of Spine and Joint Pathology in 2019. In total, 16 patients, 8 men and 8 women, 4 men and 4 women with stage I and II, as well as 4 men and 4 women with stage III and IV osteoarthritis of the hip and knee joints were selected to analyze the results of the clinical and laboratory examination. Patients' age ranged from 37 to 65 years. The stage of osteoarthritis was evaluated according to the X-ray classification by Kellgren J. H. and Lawrence J. S. The control group consisted of 10 healthy individuals, aged 28 to 52 years. They included 6 men and 4 women. Blood serum was used as the material for the study It was checked for: total protein, glycoproteins, sialic acids, chondroitinsulfates, total calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol, β-lipoproteins, alkaline and acid phosphatase activity. Comparisons of groups in dynamics were performed on the Student's parametric criterion with determination of mean (M) and its error (m). Results and discussion. The biochemical parameters of blood in patients with osteoarthritis at the I-II stages of the disease were partially changed. Total protein, calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol, activity alkaline and acid phosphatase content did not differ from clinically healthy individuals. Increase in the initial stages of osteoarthritis of the content of serum glycoproteins by 28.3 %, sialic acids was by 26.2 % and chondroitin sulfate increased 2 times. Alkaline phosphatase activity increased by 43.1 %, serum β-lipoprotein content by 34.9 %. Destructive processes in the bone tissue, which was confirmed by an increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase by 87.0 %, and acid phosphatase – by 41.6 %, accompany the severe course of the disease at the III-IV stages of osteoarthritis. The increase in the activity of acid phosphatase indicates the destruction of the tissues of the joints. Conclusions. The increase in the content of glycoproteins and chondroitin sulfates occurred depending on the stages of osteoarthritis, which allows the use of these biochemical tests to characterize the various stages of the disease. The increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, as well as the increase in acid phosphatase activity at the III-IV stages of osteoarthritis reflect structural changes in the bone and cartilage of the joints, the increase in β-lipoprotein content indicates the possible presence of vasopathies.
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