The article presents the results of processing the data of modern professional literature on the topical problem of medicine – the morphological condition of the intra– and extrahepatic bile ducts under pathological conditions of the hepato–biliary system, since the health of the main "factory" of the organism – the liver, depends on the preservation of the structural bile duct organization. The epithelium damage of the bile duct mucosa, caused by autoimmune imbalance, viral or bacterial infection, toxic substances or developmental abnormalities, lead to severe structural changes in the liver causing high mortality rate. The researchers focus mainly on the therapeutic and surgical treatment of the bile duct pathology. The number of surgical interventions on the bile ducts has increased by 56 % over the last 10 years (about 4100 surgical interventions per year), with the postoperative mortality rate being 2.1 %. The purpose of the research was to analyze the scientific literature on the morphological features of bile ducts under the influence of endo– and exopathogenic causes. Material and methods. The material of the research was intra– and extrahepatic biliary tract in acute and chronic cholangitis, choledocholithiasis, biliary obstruction, ischemia, diabetes mellitus, and drug–induced bile duct lesions. The following research methods were used: histological, submicroscopic, biochemical, immuno–histochemical, of 3D (three–dimensional) confocal imaging, computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiography. Conclusion. Profound morphological changes in the structural organization of both extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts in the course of various pathological processes, negative effect of medication, progressive destruction of bile ducts associated with the use of narcotic drugs present not only a serious medical and social problem, but also economic challenge, which requires further thorough study and search for the ways of solution.
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