Despite the fact that physical activity is one of the most reliable means of preventing a number of cardiovascular diseases, and high levels of physical activity are strictly associated with reducing the incidence of these diseases, excessive physical activity can be a factor that provokes their development. In addition, the risk of their development is contributed by genetic factors that explain the heterogeneity of the impact of exercise on the body. Although the qualitative and quantitative indicators of the manifestation of myocardial hypertrophy have been sufficiently studied and classified, the discussions about the mechanisms of formation of hypertrophy and the possibility of transformation of physiological hypertrophy into pathological under the influence of physical activity are still silent. A new class of RNAs is long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with a wide variety of biological processes in response to physical activity that can act on different stages of gene expression. Some authors demonstrated in experiments the important role of lncRNA in the normal development of the heart and in the occurrence of heart disease, in particular, it was shown that some long non-coding RNAs were expressed by myocardium and might be factors of cardiac hypertrophy. The purpose of the study was to investigate the response of changes in lncRNA expression levels as a possible mechanism of adaptation to intense physical activity. Material and methods. The study involved 153 individuals, 111 of them were professional athletes (82 were rowers, 29 were athletes), 12 were non-professional and 30 were untrained individuals, who formed the control group. In our study we used the following methods: analysis of scientific literature, molecular-genetic (RNA isolation, real-time PCR), methods of mathematical statistics. Results and discussion. In the situation with non-professional athletes (marathon runners), we did not get reliable results, although lncRNA expression levels vary. Immediately after moderate exercise, the expression of LIPCAR lncRNA decreased 1.02-fold (p=0.61) and increased 1.28-fold (p = 0.43) above rest on the 1st day. Expression of NRON lncRNA was similar to LIPCAR initially decreasing 1.04 times (p=0.56) and resuming within 24 hours – from the first point increasing 1.02 times (p=0.88). In both cases, the level of MHRT lncRNA increased 1.25 times (p=0.67) immediately after the marathon race, and 1.34 times (p=0.32) after 24 hours. MIAT expression changes slightly decreasing 1.28 times (p=0.35), slightly increasing after several days by 1.15 times (p=0.47). After moderate exercise, the expression of most lncRNAs (LIPCAR, NRON, and MIAT) decreased slightly, but recovered somewhat after 24 hours, which may indicate a super-compensation phenomenon, whereas MHRT levels increased in both cases. Conclusion. Studies of their expression level in response to physical activity allowed us to reveal new aspects of the regulation mechanism of the adaptive response of the cardiovascular system to physical activity. Expression of non-coding RNA genes may be a potential information marker of the progress of adaptation processes to intense physical activity.
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