ISSN 2415-3060 (print), ISSN 2522-4972 (online)
  • 6 of 61
JMBS 2019, 4(5): 51–56
Experimental Medicine and Morphology

Structural Features of the Development and Structure of the Human Atrioventricular Valves during Ontogenesis

Kozlov S. V., Snisar E. S.

One of the topical and perspective directions of modern medicine is the study of morphogenesis of organs and systems in different age periods of human life. Among the causes of diseases of the cardiovascular system in young children are congenital defects that can occur during intrauterine development. In the structure of morbidity and causes of death, congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system are constantly occupying leading positions not only in Ukraine but also in a number of developed countries in Europe. Taking into account the lack of work on the organogenesis of the heart and the morphogenesis of its valve apparatus in childhood, as well as the social significance of this problem, we formed the purpose of our study which was to assess the structural features of the development and structure of the atrioventricular valves of man in early childhood. Material and methods. The subject of the study was the hearts of 27 children aged 1-3 years, obtained at autopsy (12 male and 15 female). All tested hearts did not have any congenital structural pathology. The study material was used in accordance with applicable regulations. To determine the dynamics of changes in the structure, and the position of the atrioventricular valves we used anatomical preparation, topographic sections at the level of the atrioventricular orifice with the appropriate morphometric (diameters of atrioventricular openings, the area of the valve strings and the number of tendon strings of 1-3 orders). Histological (staining with hematoxylin and eosin) and immunohistochemical (determination of CD34 marker expression) methods were used to study age-related features of the structure of the atrioventricular valves and their blood supply. For the mathematical processing of the obtained data, standard biometric, correlation analysis procedures were used. The necessary calculations were performed using Microsoft Office Excel-2003 and Statistica v6.1. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated in the correlation analysis. Results and discussion. The number of correlations between heart parameters and atrioventricular valves in this age group is large enough. This indicates processes that are related to the age-specific features of the organism and its development. There are so many positive correlation relationships in both boys and girls. On the basis of a systematic approach using the complex of morphological and quantitative methods, we obtained the data on the features of the structure of the atrioventricular valves in children aged 1-3 years. We also got new quantitative data on the structural components of atrioventricular valves, as well as the valve apparatus as a whole and their gender differences. Conclusion. The uneven accumulation of the CD 34 marker in the atrioventricular flaps indicates a gradient in the location of the vascular endothelium, with the highest concentration of the marker being expressed at the base of the flap, decreasing towards the free edge of the flap.

Keywords: atrioventricular valve, human, childhood, development

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