The expansion of using various cadmium compounds in industry has led to pollution of the environment, resulting in the content of cadmium compounds in the air, food and objects of household water supply exceeds the permissible standards. Germanium and selenium are essential elements that increase human immune system, participate in the formation of amino acids, and act as antioxidants. Their properties are actively investigated, but there are currently no data on possible antagonistic effects of cadmium toxicity and embryotoxicity. All of the above suggests the need to study the morphogenetic changes occurring in the embryogenesis of the embryos of the rat under the influence of cadmium compounds, both in the case of isolated administration and in combination with germanium citrate, or selenium citrate. The purpose of the study was to experimentally investigate the effects of low doses of cadmium salts on the overall course of embryogenesis in rats at isolated injection and in combination with germanium citrate / selenium citrate. Material and methods. Experimental studies were conducted on young Wistar rats. Using the method of vaginal smears we received females with a given date of pregnancy. The introduction of the test substances started from the first day of pregnancy, intragastric (sensing) lasted daily until the end of embryogenesis. The material was collected on the 13th and 20th days of embryo development. The calculation of the embryotoxic activity of the studied substances was evaluated according to the following parameters: the number of embryos per female, the total embryonic mortality, preimplantation mortality, post implantation mortality. All rats were divided into 7 groups: Results and discussion. Group 1 was the control group, two groups of isolated administration of cadmium salts: group 2 comprised animals administered a solution of cadmium chloride at a dose of 1.0 mg / kg; group 3 had animals who were administered a solution of cadmium citrate in a dose of 1.0 mg / kg. Combined administration groups: group 4 had animals administered 1.0 mg / kg of cadmium chloride solution and 0.1 mg / kg of selenium citrate solution and group 5 with animals fed a 1.0 mg solution of cadmium citrate / kg and a solution of selenium citrate in a dose of 0.1 mg / kg. Group 6 included animals who were administered a 1.0 mg / kg solution of cadmium chloride and a solution of germanium citrate in a dose of 0.1 mg / kg. Group 7 comprised animals administered a 1.0 mg / kg solution of cadmium citrate and a solution of germanium citrate in a dose of 0.1 mg / kg. Estimation of embryogenesis showed that in groups with isolated effects of cadmium citrate / cadmium chloride there was a significant decrease in the number of embryos in both terms of pregnancy and an increase in total embryonic mortality. According to this indicator, cadmium citrate is a less toxic substance than cadmium chloride. Combined administration of cadmium salts with germanium citrate / selenium citrate reduced the rates of total embryonic mortality and reduced the number of embryos in the litter, indicating a decrease in the negative effects of citrate / cadmium chloride by germanium citrate / selenium citrate in the rat experiment. At the 13th day of embryo development and at the end of embryogenesis, selenium and germanium citrates reduced total embryonic mortality as compared to the group of isolated injection of cadmium salts. This result is due to a decrease in both preimplantation and post implantation mortality in these groups. Conclusions. Selenium citrate and germanium citrate have a modifying effect on the embryotoxicity of cadmium salts and can be considered new cadmium bioanagonists.
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